Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 137, Issue 1, pp 49–75 | Cite as

Large-Eddy Simulation of the Daytime Boundary Layer in an Idealized Valley Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Numerical Model

  • Franco Catalano
  • Chin-Hoh Moeng
Open Access
Article

Abstract

A three-dimensional numerical meteorological model is used to perform large-eddy simulations of the upslope flow circulation over a periodic ridge-valley terrain. The subgrid-scale quantities are modelled using a prognostic turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) scheme, with a grid that has a constant horizontal resolution of 50 m and is stretched along the vertical direction. To account for the grid anisotropy, a modified subgrid length scale is used. To allow for the response of the surface fluxes to the valley-flow circulation, the soil surface temperature is imposed and the surface heat and momentum fluxes are computed based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. The model is designed with a symmetrical geometry using periodic boundary conditions in both the x and y directions. Two cases are simulated to study the influence of along-valley geostrophic wind forcing with different intensities. The presence of the orography introduces numerous complexities both in the mean properties of the flow and in the turbulent features, even for the idealized symmetric geometry. Classical definitions for the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are revisited and redefined to capture the complex structure of the boundary layer. Analysis of first- and second-moment statistics, along with TKE budget, highlights the different structure of the PBL at different regions of the domain.

Keywords

Boundary-layer height Geostrophic wind forcing Horizontal breeze Subsidence Surface flux heterogeneity Turbulent kinetic energy budget 

References

  1. Antonelli M, Rotunno R (2007) Large-eddy simulation of the onset of the sea breeze. J Atmos Sci 64: 4445–4457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beare RJ, MacVean MK, Holtslag AAM, Cuxart J, Esau I, Golaz J-C, Jimenez MA, Khairoutdinov M, Kosovic B, Lewellen D, Lund TS, Lundquist JK, McCabe A, Moene AF, Noh Y, Raasch S, Sullivan PP (2006) An intercomparison of large-eddy simulations of the stable boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 118: 247–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brehm M, Freytag C (1982) Erosion of the night-time thermal circulation in an alpine valley. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bioklimatol 31: 331–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chow FK, Weigel AP, Street RL, Rotach MW, Xue M (2006) High-resolution large-eddy simulations of flow in a steep alpine valley. Part I: Methodology, verification and sensitivity experiments. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 45: 63–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conzemius RJ, Fedorovich E (2006) Dynamics of sheared convective boundary layer entrainment. Part I: Methodological background and large eddy simulations. J Atmos Sci 63: 1151–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deardorff JW (1970) A numerical study of three-dimensional turbulent channel flow at large Reynolds numbers. J Fluid Mech 41: 452–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deardorff JW (1972) Numerical investigation of neutral and unstable planetary boundary layers. J Atmos Sci 29: 91–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deardorff JW (1980) Stratocumulus-capped mixed layer derived from a three-dimensional model. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 18: 495–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fedorovich E, Conzemius R (2008) Effects of wind shear on the atmospheric convective boundary layer structure and evolution. Acta Geophys 56: 114–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haiden T, Whiteman CD (2005) Katabatic flow mechanisms on a low-angle slope. J Appl Meteorol 44: 113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hennemuth B (1987) Heating of a small alpine valley. Meteorol Atmos Phys 36: 287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunt JCR, Fernando HJS, Princevac M (2003) Unsteady thermally driven flows on gentle slopes. J Atmos Sci 60: 2169–2182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hyun Y-K, Kim K-E, Ha K-J (2005) A comparison of methods to estimate the height of stable boundary layer over a temperate grassland. Agric For Meteorol 132: 132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kondo J, Kuwagata T, Haginoya S (1989) Heat budget analysis of nocturnal cooling and daytime heating in a basin. J Atmos Sci 46: 2917–2933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lundquist KA, Chow FK, Lundquist JK (2010) An immersed boundary method for the weather research and forecasting model. Mon Weather Rev 138: 796–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Manins PC, Sawford BL (1979) A model of katabatic winds. J Atmos Sci 36: 619–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Michioka T, Chow FK (2008) High-resolution large-eddy simulations of scalar transport in atmospheric boundary layer flow over complex terrain. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 47: 3150–3169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moeng C-H (1984) A large-eddy-simulation model for the study of planetary boundary-layer turbulence. J Atmos Sci 41: 2052–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moeng C-H, Sullivan PP (1994) A comparison of shear- and buoyancy-driven planetary boundary layer flows. J Atmos Sci 51: 999–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moeng C-H, Dudhia J, Klemp J, Sullivan P (2007) Examining two-way grid nesting for large eddy simulation of the PBL using the WRF model. Mon Weather Rev 135: 2295–2311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Monti P, Fernando HJS, Princevac M, Chan WC, Kowalewski TA, Pardyjak ER (2002) Observations of flow and turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer over a slope. J Atmos Sci 59: 2513–2534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nieuwstadt FTM, Mason PJ, Moeng C-H, Schumann U et al (1993) Large-eddy simulation of the convective boundary layer: a comparison of four computer codes. In: Durst F (eds) Turbulent shear flows, vol 8. Springer, Berlin, p 431Google Scholar
  23. Noppel H, Fiedler F (2002) Mesoscale heat transport over complex terrain by slope winds—a conceptual model and numerical simulations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104: 73–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patton EG, Sullivan PP, Moeng C-H (2005) The influence of idealized heterogeneity on wet and dry planetary boundary layers coupled to the land surface. J Atmos Sci 62: 2078–2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Princevac M, Fernando HJS (2007) A criterion for the generation of turbulent anabatic flows. Phys Fluids 19: 105102. doi: 10.1063/1.2775932 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rampanelli G, Zardi D, Rotunno R (2004) Mechanisms of up-valley winds. J Atmos Sci 61: 3097–3111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rotach MW et al (2004) Turbulence structure and exchange processes in an alpine valley: the Riviera project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 85: 1367–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sagaut P (2006) Large-eddy simulation for incompressible flows. Springer, New York, p 556Google Scholar
  29. Saiki EM, Moeng C-H, Sullivan PP (2000) Large-eddy simulation of the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 95: 1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schumann U (1990) Large-eddy simulation of the up-slope boundary layer. Q J R Meteorol Soc 116: 637–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scotti A, Meneveau C, Lilly DK (1993) Generalized Smagorinsky model for anisotropic grids. Phys Fluids 5: 2306–2308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Simpson JE (1994) Sea breeze and local winds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 228Google Scholar
  33. Skamarock WC, Klemp JB, Dudhia J, Gill DO, Barker DM, Duda MG, Huang X-Y, Wang W, Powers JG (2008) A description of the advanced research WRF version 3. NCAR/TN-475, 113 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Skyllingstad ED (2003) Large-eddy simulation of katabatic flows. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 106: 217–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sorbjan Z (2004) Large-eddy simulation of the baroclinic mixed layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112: 57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sullivan PP, Mc Williams JC, Moeng C-H (1994) A subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation of planetary boundary-layer flows. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 71: 247–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sullivan PP, Moeng C-H, Stevens B, Lenschow D, Mayor SD (1998) Structure of the entrainment zone capping the convective atmospheric boundary layer. J Atmos Sci 55: 3042–3064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Weigel AP, Chow FK, Rotach MW, Street RL, Xue M (2006) High-resolution large-eddy simulations of flow in a steep alpine valley. Part II: Flow structure and heat budgets. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 45: 87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wyngaard JC (1983) Lectures on the planetary boundary layer. In: Lilly DK, Gal-Chen T (eds) Mesoscale meteorology-theories, observations and models. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, p 781Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hydraulics, Transportation and RoadsSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology DivisionNational Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)BoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations