A new large-eddy simulation model for simulating air flow and warm clouds above highly complex terrain. Part I: The dry model
This paper presents the dry version of a new large-eddy simulation (LES) model, which is designed to simulate air flow and clouds above highly complex terrain. The model is three-dimensional and nonhydrostatic, and the governing equations are sound filtered by use of the anelastic approximation. A fractional step method is applied to solve the equations on a staggered Cartesian grid. Arbitrarily steep and complex orography can be accounted for through the method of viscous topography. The dynamical model core is validated by comparing the results for a spreading density current against a benchmark solution. The model accuracy is further assessed through the simulation of turbulent flow across a quasi two-dimensional ridge. The results are compared with wind-tunnel data. The method of viscous topography is not restricted to moderately sloped terrain. Compared to models using curvilinear grids, it allows this model to be applied to a much wider range of flows. This is illustrated through the simulation of an atmospheric boundary-layer flow over a surface mounted cube. The results show that the dry model version is able to accurately represent the complex flow in the vicinity of three-dimensional obstacles. It is concluded that the method of viscous topography was successfully implemented into a micrometeorological LES model. As will be shown in Part II, this allows the detailed study of clouds in highly complex terrain.
KeywordsComplex orography Inflow turbulence Large-eddy simulation Turbulent flow
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