Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 849–857 | Cite as

The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe

  • George Elder
  • Pauline Harper
  • Michael Badminton
  • Sverre Sandberg
  • Jean-Charles Deybach
Original Article


Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 – 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28–0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5–6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3–5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity.


Acute Attack Porphyria Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Porphyria Cutanea Tarda Acute Intermittent Porphyria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Acute intermittent porphyria


5-aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency porphyria


Congenital erythropoietic porphyria


Confidence interval


European Porphyria Network


Erythropoietic protoporphyria


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hereditary coproporphyria


Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria


Variegate porphyria



This work was co-funded by the European Commission through its Public Health and Consumer Protection Directorate (DG SANCO) PHEA programme. Thomas Røraas at the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Primary Care Laboratories (NOKLUS), Bergen Norway advised on the statistical analyses of the data.

Competing interest

The project was co-funded by the European Commission through its Public Health and Consumer Protection Directorate (DG SANCO) PHEA programme. The authors confirm independence from the sponsors; the content of the article has not been influenced by the sponsors.


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Copyright information

© SSIEM and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Elder
    • 1
  • Pauline Harper
    • 2
  • Michael Badminton
    • 1
  • Sverre Sandberg
    • 3
  • Jean-Charles Deybach
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medical Biochemistry and ImmunologyUniversity Hospital of WalesCardiffUK
  2. 2.Porphyria Centre SwedenKarolinska UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Norwegian Porphyria Centre (NAPOS)Haukeland University HospitalBergenNorway
  4. 4.Centre Francais des PorphyriesHopital Louis MourierColombes CEDEXFrance

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