Mechanisms of heat sensing and responses in plants. It is not all about Ca2+ ions

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Abstract

The climate shift has resulted in frequent heat waves, which cause damaging effects on plant growth and development at different life stages. All cellular processes in plants are highly sensitive to a high temperature. The plasma membrane heat receptors usually sense temperature variations directly or via a change in membrane fluidity. The accumulation of damaged proteins and reactive oxygen species also aid in heat perception. Calcium ions and heat sensors transfer signals to transcription factors through a series of signaling cascades. The heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) effectively regulate expression of heat induced genes. The members of the heat shock transcription factor A1 (HsfA1s) family are master regulators of a heat stress response. Different HSFs interact with each other at different levels and simultaneously operate heat induced gene expression. Interaction of HSFs with each other on multiple levels provides chances for manipulation to improve plant heat stress tolerance.

Additional key words

calcium heat sensors heat stress transcription factors membrane receptors reactive oxygen species 

Abbreviations

ABA

abscisic Acid

ACBP

acyl CoA binding-protein

AREB/ABFs

ABA responsive-element bindingfactors/ ABRE binding-factors

ARP6

actin related protein 6

BIP3

binding immunoglobulin protein

bZIP

basic leucine zipper

CaM3

calmodulin 3

CBKS

calcium/calmodulin binding protein-kinases

CDKA1

cyclin dependent-kinase A1

CDPK

calcium dependent protein-kinase

CNGCS

cyclic nucleotide-gated channels

DPB3

DNA polymerase II subunit B3

DREB2A

dehydration responsive element-binding protein-2A

ERFs

ethylene responsive factors

GRF7

growth regulation-factor 7

GRI

Grim Reaper

H2A.Z

histone cluster 1 family member Z

H2A

histone cluster 1 family member A

HS

heat stress

HSF

heat stress transcription factors

Hsfa1

heat shock transcription factor A1

JUB1

Jungbrunnen 1

MAPK6

mitogen activated proteinkinase 6

MBF1C

multiprotein bridging factor 1C

MED25

MEDIATOR 25

NAC019

NAC domain containing Protein 19

NF-YA2/NF-YB3

nuclear factor Y, subunit A2 or B3

NPR1

natriuretic peptide receptor 1

NRD

negative regulatory domain

PA

phosphatidic acid

PEPC

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

PM

plasma membrane

PP7

protein-phosphatase 7

PPI

protein-protein interaction

RCD1

radical induced cell-death 1

RCF2

C-repeat binding factor gene expression 2

RIM

RCD1 interacting motif

ROF1

rotamase FKBP 1

ROF2

rotamase FKBP 2

ROS

reactive oxygen species

STIM

stromal-interaction molecules

SWR1

Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase

SYTA

synaptotagmin A

TDR

temperature dependent-repression

TFIIB

transcription factor IIB

TFs

transcription factors

TRP-V

transient receptor-potential cation channel subfamily V

UPR

unfolded protein response.

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© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Excellence for Molecular BiologyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Molecular Biology and BiotechnologyUniversity of LahoreLahorePakistan

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