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Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 59, Issue 3, pp 401–412 | Cite as

Translation initiation in plants: roles and implications beyond protein synthesis

  • S. Dutt
  • J. Parkash
  • R. Mehra
  • N. Sharma
  • B. Singh
  • P. Raigond
  • A. Joshi
  • S. Chopra
  • B. P. Singh
Review

Abstract

Protein synthesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in all organisms, including plants. It is primarily regulated at translation initiation stage which is mediated through a number of translation initiation factors (eIFs). It is now becoming more apparent that in addition to synthesis of proteins, eIFs also regulate various aspects of plant development and their interaction with environment. Translation initiation factors, such as eIF3, eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF5A affect different processes during vegetative and reproductive growth like embryogenesis, xylogenesis, flowering, sporogenesis, pollen germination, etc. On the contrary, eIF1A, eIF2, eIF4, and eIF5A are associated with interaction of plants with different abiotic stresses, such as high temperature, salinity, oxidative stress, etc. Similarly, eIF4E and eIF4G have roles in interaction with many viruses. Therefore, the translation initiation factors are important candidates for improving plant performance and adaptation. A large number of genes encoding eIFs can functionally be validated and utilized through genetic engineering approaches for better adaptability and performance of plants by inhibiting/minimizing or increasing expression of desired eIF(s).

Additional key words

embryogenesis germination high temperature oxidative stress salinity viral diseases water stress 

Abbreviations

AA

amino acid

CITE

cap-independent translation element

Cys

cysteine

eIF

translation initiation factor

GEF

guanine nucleotide exchange factor

Met

methionine

mRNA

messenger RNA

ORF

open reading frame

PABP

poly(A)-binding protein

PIC

pre-initiation complex

P-site

peptidyl site

RRM

RNA recognition motif

tRNAi

initiator transfer RNA

UTR

untranslated region

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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Dutt
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Parkash
    • 2
  • R. Mehra
    • 2
  • N. Sharma
    • 2
  • B. Singh
    • 1
  • P. Raigond
    • 1
  • A. Joshi
    • 1
  • S. Chopra
    • 1
  • B. P. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR — Central Potato Research InstituteShimlaIndia
  2. 2.Biotechnology DivisionCSIR — Institute of Himalayan Bioresource TechnologyPalampurIndia

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