Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 589–594 | Cite as

Effect of endophyte infection on chlorophyll a fluorescence in salinity stressed rice

Brief Communication


We have earlier reported that the endophyte infection can enhance photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities in rice exposed to salinity stress. Now, the changes in primary photochemistry of photosystem (PS) II induced by Na2CO3 stress in endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-uninfected (E-) rice seedlings were studied using chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP-test). Performance indices (PIABS and PITotal) of E- and E+ rice seedlings revealed the inhibitory effects of Na2CO3 on PS II connectivity (occurrence of an L-band), oxygen evolving complex (occurrence of a K-band), and on the J step of the induction curves, associated with an inhibition of electron transport from plastoquinone A (QA) to plastoquinone B (QB). In E+ seedlings, Na2CO3 effects on L and K bands were much smaller, or even negligible, and also there was no pronounced effect on the J step. Furthermore, the OJIP parameters indicated that 20 mM Na2CO3 had a greater influence on the photosystem (PS) II electron transport chain than did the 10 mM Na2CO3, and that changes were greater in E- than in E+. Endophyte infection was therefore deemed to enhance the photosynthetic mechanism of Oryza sativa exposed to salinity stress.

Additional key words

electron transport chain Na2CO3 OJIP test Oryza sativa photosystem 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

10535_2014_428_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (102 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 101 KB.


  1. Bu, N., Li, X., Li, Y., Ma, C., Ma, L., Zhang, C.: Effects of Na2CO3 stress on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in endophyte infected and non-infected rice. — Ecotoxic. environ. Safety 78: 35–40, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen, L.S., Cheng, L.: Photosystem 2 is more tolerant to high temperature in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) leaves than in fruit peel. — Photosynthetica 47: 112–120, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hakim, M.A., Juraimi, A.S., Begum, M., Hanafi, M.M., Ismail, M.R., Selamat, A.: Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). — Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9: 1911–1918, 29, 2010.Google Scholar
  4. Haldimann, P., Strasser, R.J.: Effects of anaerobiosis as probed by the polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetic in pea (Pisum sativum L.). — Photosynth. Res. 62: 67–83, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Havaux, M.: Short-term responses of photosystem I to heat stress. — Photosynth. Res. 47: 85–97, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jedmowski, C., Ashoub, A., Bruggemann, W.: Reactions of Egyptian landraces of Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor to drought stress, evaluated by the OJIP fluorescence transient analysis. — Acta Physiol. Plant. 35: 345–354, 2013.Google Scholar
  7. Kane, K.H.: Effects of endophyte infection on drought stress tolerance of Lolium perenne accessions from the Mediterranean region. — Environ. exp. Bot. 71: 337–344, 2011.Google Scholar
  8. Li, X., Bu, N., Li, Y., Ma, L., Xin, S., Zhang, L.: Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of endophyte infected and non-infected rice under lead stress conditions. — J. Hazar. Mater. 213–214: 55–61, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Malinowski, D.P., Belesky, D.P.: Adaptations of endophyte infected cool season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance. — Crop Sci. 40: 923–940, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Monnet, F., Vaillant, N., Hitmi, A., Coudret, A., Sallanon, H.: Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne. — Physiol. Plant 113: 557–563, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oukarroum, A., El Madidi, S., Strasser, R.J.: Exogenous glycine betaine and proline play a protective role in heat-stressed barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.): a chlorophyll a fluorescence study. — Plant Biosyst. 146: 1037–1043, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ren, A.Z., Li, X., Han, R., Yin, L.J., Wei, M.Y., Gao, Y.B.: Benefits of a symbiotic association with endophytic fungi are subject to water and nutrient availability in Achnatherum sibiricum. — Plant Soil 346: 363–373, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rodriguez, R., Redman, R.: More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can’t make it on their own: plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis. — J. exp. Bot. 59: 1109–1114, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sahi, C., Singh, A., Kumar, K., Blumwald, E., Grover, A.: Salt stress response in rice: genetics, molecular biology, and comparative genomics. — Funct. Integr. Genom. 6: 263–284, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schmidt, S.B., Pedas, P., Laursen, K.H., Schjoerring, J.K., Husted, S.: Latent manganese deficiency in barley can be diagnosed and remediated on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. — Plant Soil 372: 417–429, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sengupta, S., Majumder, A.L.: Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka, a wild rice: a potential model for studying saltstress biology in rice. — Plant Cell Environ. 33: 526–542, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shao, R., Wang, K., Shangguan, Z.: Cytokinin-induced photosynthetic adaptability of Zea mays L. to drought stress associated with nitric oxide signal: Probed by ESR spectroscopy and fast OJIP fluorescence rise. — J. Plant Physiol. 167: 472–479, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Soleimani, M., Hajabbasi, M.A., Afyuni, M., Mirlohi, A., Borggaard, O.K., Holm, P.E.: Effect of endophytic fungi on cadmium tolerance and bioaccumulation by Festuca arundinacea and Festuca pratensis. — Inter. J. Phytoremed. 12: 535–549, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stirbet, A., Govindjee, B.J., Strasser, R.J.: Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in higher plants: modelling and numerical simulation. — J. theor. Biol. 193: 131–151, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Strasser, R.J., Srivastava, A.: Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transient in plants and cyanobacteria. — Photochem. Photobiol. 61: 32–42, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Strasser, R., Srivastava, A., Tsimilli-Michael, M.: The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. — In: Yunus, M., Pathre, U., Mohanty, P. (ed.): Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanisms, Regulation and Adaptation. Pp. 445–483. Taylor & Francis Publishers, London 2000.Google Scholar
  22. Strasser, R.J., Tsimilli-Michael, M., Qiang, S., Goltsev, V.: Simultaneous in vivo recording of prompt and delayed fluorescence and 820-nm reflection changes during drying and after rehydration of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis. — Biochim. biophys. Acta 1797: 1313–1326, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Strasser, R.J., Tsimilli-Michael, M., Srivastava, A.: Analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient. — In: Papageorgiou (ed.): Chlorophyll a Fluorescence. Pp. 321–362. Springer, Berlin 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tuteja, N.: Mechanisms of high salinity tolerance in plants. — Method Enzymol. 428: 419–438, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Venkatesh, J., Upadhyaya, C.P., Yu, J.W., Hemavathi, A., Kim, D.H., Strasser, R.J., Park, S.W.: Chlorophyll a fluorescence transient analysis of transgenic potato overexpressing D-galacturonic acid reductase gene for salinity stress tolerance. — Hort. Environ. Biotechnol. 53: 320–328, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang, G., Hao, Z., Anken, R.H., Lu, J., Liu, Y.: Effects of UVB radiation on photosynthesis activity of Wolffia arrhiza as probed by chlorophyll fluorescence transients. — Adv. Space Res. 45: 839–845, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, Z.F., Li, C.J., Jin, W.J., Nan, Z.B.: Effect of Neotyphodium endophyte infection on salt tolerance of Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link. — Acta agr. sin. 17: 88–92, 2009.Google Scholar
  28. Xue, Z.-C., Gao, H.-Y., Zhang, L.-T.: Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll content in leaves of soybean seedlings. — Biol. Plant. 57: 587–590, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yusuf, M.A., Kumar, D., Rajwanshi, R., Strasser, R.J., Tsimilli-Michael, M., Sarin, N.B.: Overexpression of γ-tocopherol methyl transferase gene in transgenic Brassica juncea plants alleviates abiotic stress: Physiological and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. — Biochim. biophys. Acta 1797: 1428–1438, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zubek, S., Turnau, K., Tsimilli-Michael, M., Strasser, R.J.: Response of endangered plant species to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria. — Mycorrhiza 19: 113–123, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zushi, K., Kajiwara, S., Matsuzoe, N.: Chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP transient as a tool to characterize and evaluate response to heat and chilling stress in tomato leaf and fruit. — Sci. Hort. 148: 39–46, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Life ScienceShenyang Normal UniversityShenyangP.R. China
  2. 2.Environmental Science Department of Liaoning UniversityShenyangP.R. China

Personalised recommendations