Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 361–365 | Cite as

Direct somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis from leaf explants of Primulina tabacum

  • G. H. Ma
  • C. X. He
  • H. Ren
  • Q. M. Zhang
  • S. J. Li
  • X. H. Zhang
  • B. Eric
Brief Communication


An efficient propagation system via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration system for endangered species Primulina tabacum Hance was established. Thidiazuron (TDZ) was the key plant growth regulator for inducing somatic embryogenesis and kinetin (KIN) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) were the key cytokinins for inducing shoot organogenesis from leaf explants. TDZ combined with BAP or KIN in the induction Murashige and Skoog medium induced both somatic embryos and adventitious shoots. Leaf explants with abaxial site in contact with the medium induced less somatic embryos or adventitious shoots compared to inversely placed leaf explants and the optimum pH was 6.5–7.0. Secondary somatic embryos or adventitious shoot could be induced from primary somatic embryos using TDZ and BAP. Shoots developed adventitious roots on rooting medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid and 0.2 % activated carbon. Over 90 % of plantlets survived following acclimatization and transfer to potting mixture (sand:Vermiculite:limestone; 1:2:1).

Additional key words

adventitious shoot 6-benzylaminopurine 3-indolebutyric acid kinetin micropropagation thidiazuron 





2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


indole-3-butyric acid




α-naphthalene acetic acid




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Supports from the Corporation Program of National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2007CB411600), the Program for Tropical & Subtropical Plant Germplasm Construction of Guangdong Province (2005B60301001, 2006B60101034) and Guangdong Scientific Program (2007A060306011) are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Ma
    • 1
  • C. X. He
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Ren
    • 1
  • Q. M. Zhang
    • 1
  • S. J. Li
    • 1
  • X. H. Zhang
    • 1
  • B. Eric
    • 3
  1. 1.South China Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouP.R. China
  2. 2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingP.R. China
  3. 3.Kings Park and Botanic GardenWest PerthAustralia

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