Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 429–436 | Cite as

Cyclic somatic embryogenesis and efficient plant regeneration from callus of safflower

  • J. Vijaya Kumar
  • B. D. Ranjitha Kumari
  • E. Castaño
Original Papers


Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was established for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cv. NARI-6. Embryogenic calli were induced from 10 to 17-d-old cotyledon and leaf explants from in vitro seedlings. High frequency (94.3 %) embryogenic callus was obtained from cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s germination (MSG) basal medium supplemented with thidiazuron, 2-isopentenyladenine and indole-3-butyric acid. Primary, secondary and cyclic somatic embryos were formed from embryogenic calli in a different media free of plant growth regulators, however, 100 % cyclic somatic embryogenesis was obtained from cotyledon derived embryogenic calli cultured on MSG. Somatic embryos matured and germinated in quarter-strength MSG medium supplemented with gibberellic acid. Cotyledons with root poles or non root poles were converted to normal plantlets and produced adventitious roots in rooting medium. Rooted plants were acclimatized and successfully transferred to the field.

Additional key words

Asteraceae medicinal plant plant growth regulators secondary somatic embryogenesis 



Gamborg medium


cotyledon derived embryogenic calli


2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


gibberellic acid


indole-3-butyric acid






leaf derived embryogenic calli

MSG medium

Murashige and Skoog’s germination medium


naphthalene-acetic acid


programmed cell death


proembryogenic mass


Schenk and Hildebrandt


somatic embryogenesis


thidiazuron (1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl)-urea


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Vijaya Kumar
    • 1
  • B. D. Ranjitha Kumari
    • 1
  • E. Castaño
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant ScienceBharathidasan University, TiruchirappalliTamil NaduIndia
  2. 2.CICY, UBMMP, MeridaYucatanMexico

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