Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 414–420 | Cite as

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Abelmoschus esculentus through suspension culture

  • M. Ganesan
  • R. Chandrasekar
  • B. D. Ranjitha Kumari
  • N. Jayabalan
Original Papers


A simple and reliable protocol for regeneration of okra through somatic embryogenesis from suspension cultures has been developed. Embryogenic callus was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured on media with Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts, Gamborg (B5) vitamins, 2.0 mg dm−3 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1.0 mg dm−3 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 25 mg dm−3 polyvinylpyrrolidone and 30 g dm−3 sucrose. More number and high frequency of healthy embryoids appeared individually in suspension culture containing MS salts, B5 vitamins, 2.0 mg dm−3 2,4-D and 1.0 mg dm−3 kinetin. Formation of cell clusters from the single cells was clearly noticed during ontogeny. Matured embryos at the cotyledonary stage were transferred to agar solidified medium for germination. The best conversion of embrya into plantlets (67.3 %) was recorded on media with half strength MS salts, B5 vitamins, 0.2 mg dm−3 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.2 mg dm−3 gibberellic acid (GA3). The plantlets were transferred to soil and hardened in the plastic pots. After proper acclimatization, the plantlets regenerated through somatic embryogenesis were compared to seed grown plants to observe any variation.

Additional key words

auxins cell aggregates embryoids liquid medium okra 



Gamborg et al. (1968) medium




gibberellic acid




Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium


naphthaleneacetic acid




Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) medium


2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


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Copyright information

© Institute of Experimental Botany, ASCR 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ganesan
    • 1
  • R. Chandrasekar
    • 1
  • B. D. Ranjitha Kumari
    • 1
  • N. Jayabalan
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Biotechnology Unit, Department of Plant ScienceBharathidasan University, TiruchirappalliTamil NaduIndia

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