, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 539–549 | Cite as

Homeostasis of metals in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease



In order to study the involvement of metals in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, serum samples from patients with Alzheimer and mild cognitive impairment were investigated. For this purpose, metal content was analyzed after size-fractionation of species and then, inter-element and inter-fraction ratios were computed. In this way, the analysis allowed discovering changes that could be used as markers of disease, but also provided a new insight into the interactions in the homeostasis of elements in neurodegeneration and its progression. Aluminum and labile forms of iron and copper were increased in demented patients, while manganese, zinc and selenium were reduced. Interestingly, levels of different elements, principally iron, aluminum and manganese, were closely inter-related, which could evidence a complex interdependency between the homeostasis of the different metals in this disorder. On the other hand, imbalances in metabolism of copper, zinc and selenium could be associated to abnormal redox status. Therefore, this study may contribute to our understanding of the pathological mechanisms related to metals in Alzheimer’s disease.


Alzheimer’s disease Mild cognitive impairment Metal homeostasis Inter-element relations 



This work was supported by the projects CTM2012-38720-C03-01 from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación and P008-FQM-3554 and P009-FQM-4659 from the Consejería de Innovación, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucía). Raúl González Domínguez thanks the Ministerio de Educación for a predoctoral scholarship. The authors also thank to Dr. Alberto Blanco and Carlos Salgado from Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez for providing serum samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and CC.MM, Faculty of Experimental ScienceUniversity of HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  2. 2.Campus of Excellence International ceiA3University of HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  3. 3.Research Center of Health and Environment (CYSMA)University of HuelvaHuelvaSpain

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