, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 337–346 | Cite as

Fish micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic potential of arsenic at its guideline exposure in aquatic environment

  • Amod Kumar
  • Vibudh P. Kesari
  • Parimal K. Khan


The exposure to arsenic, a potential genotoxic carcinogen in humans, via drinking water is a serious worldwide health hazard. The arsenic content of 10 μg L−1 in drinking water, however, has been established as its guideline standard (maximum contaminant limit) that has been estimated to pose minimum risk to cancer. Since micronucleus induction in the erythrocytes of fish is a sensitive indicator of genotoxic agents in water, the piscine micronucleus assay was used in the present experiment to assess the genotoxic potential of arsenic at its various exposure levels including the guideline value for drinking water. The experiments were conducted in two different species of fishes, the pond murrel (Channa punctatus) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Significant increases in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes were documented in a dose-dependent manner in both Channa and Carassius. The fishes, however, exhibited variations in inter-specific sensitivity to micronucleus induction following arsenic exposure. The exposure level of arsenic at its guideline value for drinking water, therefore, exhibited marked genotoxicity in fishes.


Arsenic Genotoxicity Fish Guideline value Micronucleus 


  1. Abernathy CO, Thomas DJ, Calderon RL (2003) Health effects and risk assessment of arsenic. J Nutr 133:1536S–1538SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad S, Kitchin KT, Cullen WR (2000) Arsenic species that cause release of iron from ferritin and generation of activated oxygen. Arch Biochem Biophys 382:195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed MK, Habibullah-Al-Mamun M, Hossain MA, Arif M, Parvin E, Akter MS, Khan MS, Islam MM (2011) Assessing the genotoxic potentials of arsenic in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. Chemosphere 84:143–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akter KF, Owens G, Davey DE, Naidu R (2005) Arsenic speciation and toxicity in biological systems. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 184:97–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen T, Rana SVS (2004) Effect of arsenic (AsIII) on glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver and kidney of the freshwater fish Channa punctatus. Biol Trace Elem Res 100:39–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Sabti K, Metcalfe CD (1995) Fish micronuclei for assessing genotoxicity in water. Mutat Res 374:121–135Google Scholar
  7. Andrew AS, Karagas MR, Hamilton JW (2003) Decreased DNA repair gene expression among individuals exposed to arsenic in United States drinking water. Int J Cancer 104:263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrew AS, Burgess JL, Meza MM, Demidenko E, Waugh MG, Hamilton JW, Karagas MR (2006) Arsenic exposure is associated with decreased DNA repair in vitro and in individuals exposed to drinking water arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 114:1193–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. APHA (American Public Health Association) (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 20th ed. American water work association, American environment federation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  10. Aposhian HV, Aposhian MM (2006) Arsenic toxicology: five questions. Chem Res Toxicol 19:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2007) Toxicological profile for Arsenic. US Department of Health and Human Services, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  12. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2008) Medical management guidelines for arsenic trioxide (As2O3), CAS#: 1327-53-3 UN#:1561Google Scholar
  13. Bagnyukova TV, Luzhna LI, Pogribny IP, Lushchak VI (2007) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in goldfish liver in response to short-term exposure to arsenite. Environ Mol Mutagen 48:658–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Basu A, Mahata J, Gupta S, Giri AK (2001) Genetic toxicology of a paradoxical human carcinogen, arsenic: a review. Mutat Res 488:171–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Basu A, Mahata J, Roy AK, Sarkar JN, Poddar G, Nandy AK, Sarkar PK, Dutta PK, Banerjee A, Das M, Ray K, Ray Chowdhury S, Natrajan AT, Nilsson R, Giri AK (2002) Enhanced frequency of micronuclei in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India. Mutat Res 516:29–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Basu A, Ghosh P, Das JK, Banerjee A, Ray K, Giri AK (2004) Micronuclei as biomarker of carcinogen exposure in populations exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India: a comparative study in 3 cell types. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:820–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bau DT, Wang TS, Chung CH, Wang AS, Jan KY (2002) Oxidative DNA adducts and DNA-protein cross-links are the major DNA lesions induced by arsenite. Environ Health Perspect 110:753–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhattacharya A, Bhattacharya S (2007) Induction of oxidative stress by arsenic in Clarias batrachus: involvement of peroxisomes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:178–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bissen M, Frimmel FH (2003) Arsenic—a review, Part 1: occurrence, toxicity, speciation and mobility. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 31:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Biswas R, Poddar S, Mukherjee A (2006) Investigations on the genotoxic effects of long term administration of sodium arsenite in bone marrow and testicular cells in vivo using comet assay. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 26:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bolognesi C, Perrone E, Roggieri B, Pampanin DM, Sciutto A (2006) Assessment of micronuclei induction in peripheral erythrocytes of fish exposed to xenobiotics under controlled conditions. Aquat Toxicol 78:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cadet J, Bourdat AG, D’Ham C, Duarte V, Gasparutto D, Romieu A, Ravanat JL (2000) Oxidative base damage to DNA: specificity of base excision repair enzyme. Mutat Res 462:121–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Castro MR, Ventura-Lima J, Salomao D, Valente R, Dummer NS, Aguiar RB, Santos LC, Marins LF, Geracitano LA, Monserrat JM, Barros DM (2009) Behavioral and neurotoxic effects of arsenic exposure in zebra fish (Danio rerio, Teleostei, Cyprinidae). Comp Biochem Physiol 150C:337–342Google Scholar
  24. Catton WT (1951) Blood cell formation in certain teleost fishes. Blood 6:39–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cavas T (2011) In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Food Chem Toxicol 49:1431–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chakraborti D, Das B, Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, Biswas B, Goswami AB, Nayak B, Pal A, Sengupta MK, Ahmed S, Hossain A, Basu G, Ray Chowdhury T, Das D (2009) Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in the state of West Bengal, India: a twenty year study report. Mol Nutr Food Res 53:542–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chakraborty T, Das U, Poddar S, Sengupta B, De M (2006) Micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers: a study in an arsenic exposed population in West Bengal, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 76:970–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Vizcaya-Ruiz A, Barbier O, Ruiz-Ramos R, Cebrian ME (2009) Biomarkers of oxidative stress and damage in human populations exposed to arsenic. Mutat Res 674:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deguchi Y, Toyoizumi T, Masuda S, Yasuhara A, Mohri S, Yamada M, Inoue Y, Kinae N (2007) Evaluation of mutagenic activities of leachates in landfill sites by micronucleus test and comet assay using goldfish. Mutat Res 627:178–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ding W, Liu W, Cooper KL, Qin X, Bergo PL, Hudson LG, Liu KJ (2009) Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by arsenite interferes with repair of oxidative DNA damage. J Biol Chem 284:6809–6817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dinnen RD, Tomlionson SM, Hart D, Chopra C, Heddle JA (1987) Application of micronucleus assay to the peripheral blood cells of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 1607:69–78Google Scholar
  32. Dopp E, Hartmann LM, Florea AM, von Recklinghausen U, Pieper R, Shokouhi D, Rettenmeier AW, Hirner AV, Obe G (2004) Uptake of inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic associated with induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 201:156–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dopp E, von Recklinghausen U, Diaz-Bone R, Hirner AV, Rettenmeier AW (2010a) Cellular uptake, subcellular distribution and toxicity of arsenic compounds in methylating and non-methylating cells. Environ Res 110:435–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dopp E, Kligerman AD, Diaz-Bone RA (2010b) Organoarsenicals: update, metabolism, and toxicity. Met Ions Life Sci 7:231–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ergene S, Cavas T, Celik A, Koleli N, Aymak C (2007) Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test. Environ Mol Mutagen 48:421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fange R (1986) Physiology of haematopoiesis. In: Nilson S, Holmgren S (eds) Fish physiology: recent advances. Croom Helm, London, pp 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fenech M (2002) Biomarkers of genetic damage for cancer epidemiology. Toxicology 181–182:411–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fenech M, Chang WP, Kirsch-Volders M, Holland N, Bonassi S, Zeiger E (2003) Human micronucleus project. HUMN project: detailed description of scoring criteria for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay using isolated lymphocyte cultures. Mutat Res 534:65–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fischer U, Ototake M, Nakanishi T (1998) Life span of circulating blood cells in Ginbuna Crucian carp (Carassius auratus Langsdorfi). Fish Shellfish Immunol 8:339–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Florea AM, Dopp E, Obe G, Rettenmeier AW (2004) Genotoxicity of organometallic species. In: Hirner AV, Emons H (eds) Organic metal and metalloid species in the environment: analysis, distribution, processes and toxicological evaluation. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Frechet M, Canitrot Y, Cazaux C, Hoffmann JS (2001) DNA polymerase beta imbalance increases apoptosis and mutagenesis induced by oxidative stress. FEBS Lett 505:229–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gebel TW (2001) Genotoxicity of arsenical compounds. Int J Hyg Environ Health 203:249–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ghosh P, Basu A, Mahata J, Basu S, Sengupta M, Das JK, Mukherjee A, Sarkar AK, Mondal L, Ray K, Giri AK (2006) Cytogenetic damage and genetic variants in the individuals susceptible to arsenic induced cancer through drinking water. Int J Cancer 118:2470–2478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grisolia CK, Cordeiro CMT (2000) Variability in micronucleus induction with different mutagens applied to several species of fishes. Genet Mol Biol 23:235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hayashi M, Uede T, Uyeno K, Wada K, Kinae N, Saotome K, Tanaka N, Takai A, Sasaki YF, Sofuni T, Ojima Y (1998) Development of genotoxicity assay systems that use aquatic organisms. Mutat Res 399:217–225Google Scholar
  46. Heddle JA, Cimino MC, Hayashi M, Romagna F, Shelby MD, Tucker JD, Vanparys Ph, MacGregor JT (1991) Micronuclei as an index of cytogenetic damage: past, present, and future. Environ Mol Mutagen 18:277–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hei TK, Filipic M (2004) Role of oxidative damage in the genotoxicity of arsenic. Free Radic Biol Med 37:574–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ho IC, Yih LH, Kao CY, Lee TC (2000) Tin-protoporphyrin potentiates arsenic induced DNA strand breaks, chromatid breaks and kinetochore negative micronuclei in human fibroblasts. Mutat Res 452:41–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hooftman RN, de Raat WK (1982) Induction of nuclear anomalies (micronuclei) in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of the eastern mudminnow Umbra pygmaea by ethyl methanesulphonate. Mutat Res 104:147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2004) IARC monograph on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to humans: some drinking water disinfectants and contaminants, including arsenic, vol 84. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  51. Jankong P, Chalhoub C, Kienzl N, Goessler W, Francesconi KA, Visoottiviseth P (2007) Arsenic accumulation and speciation in freshwater fish living in arsenic-contaminated waters. Environ Chem 4:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jha AN (2004) Genotoxicological studies in aquatic organisms: an overview. Mutat Res 552:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jomova K, Jenisova Z, Feszterova M, Baros S, Liska J, Hudecova D, Rhodes CJ, Valko M (2011) Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. J Appl Toxicol 31:95–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kar S, Maity JP, Jean J-S, Liu C-C, Nath B, Yang H-J, Bundschuh J (2010) Arsenic enriched aquifers: occurrences and mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of Ganges Delta Plain, Barasat, West Bengal, India. Appl Geochem 25:1804–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kar S, Maity JP, Jean J-S, Liu C–C, Liu C-W, Bundschuh J, Lu H-Y (2011) Health risk for human intake of aquacultural fish: arsenic bioaccumulation and contamination. J Environ Sci Health A 46:1266–1273Google Scholar
  56. Kesari VP, Kumar A, Khan PK (2012) Genotoxic potential of arsenic at its reference dose. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 80:126–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kessel M, Liu SX, Xu A, Santella R, Hei TK (2002) Arsenic induces oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biochem 234:301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khan PK, Kesari VP, Kumar A (2013) Mouse micronucleus assay as a surrogate to assess genotoxic potential of arsenic at its human reference dose. Chemosphere 90:993–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kitchin KT, Ahmad S (2003) Oxidative stress as a possible mode of action for arsenic carcinogenesis. Toxicol Lett 137:3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kitchin KT, Conolly R (2010) Arsenic-induced carcinogenesis—oxidative stress as a possible mode of action and future research needs for more biologically based risk assessment. Chem Res Toxicol 23:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kitchin KT, Wallace K (2008) The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem 102:532–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kligerman AD, Doerr CJ, Tennant AH, Harrington-Brock K, Allen JW, Winkfield E, Poorman-Allen P, Kundu D, Funasaka K, Roop BC, Mass MJ, De Marini DM (2003) Methylated trivalent arsenicals as candidate ultimate genotoxic forms of arsenic: induction of chromosomal mutations but not gene mutations. Environ Mol Mutagen 42:192–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kligerman AD, Doerr CL, Tennant AH (2005) Oxidation and methylation status determine the effects of arsenic on the mitotic apparatus. Mol Cell Biochem 279:113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kojima C, Ramirez DC, Tokar EJ, Himeno S, Drobna Z, Styblo M, Mason RP, Waalkes MP (2009) Requirement of arsenic biomethylation for oxidative DNA damage. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:1670–1681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lai Y, Zhao W, Chen C, Wu M, Zhang Z (2011) Role of DNA polymerase beta in the genotoxicity of arsenic. Environ Mol Mutagen 52:460–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lakra WS, Nagpure NS (2009) Genotoxicological studies in fishes: a review. Indian J Anim Sci 79:93–98Google Scholar
  67. Lee Y-C, Yang VC, Wang T-S (2007) Use of RAPD to detect sodium arsenite-induced DNA damage in human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicology 239:108–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewinska D, Palus J, Stepnik M, Dziubaltowaska E, Beck J, Rydzynski K, Natarajan AT, Nilsson R (2007) Micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal mucosa cells of copper smelter workers with special regards to arsenic exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80:371–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liu F, Jan KY (2000) DNA damage in arsenite and cadmium-treated bovine aortic endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med 28:55–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lourenco J, Castro BB, Machado R, Nunes B, Mendo S, Goncalves F, Pereira R (2010) Genetic, biochemical, and individual responses of the teleost fish Carassius auratus to uranium. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:1023–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lubin JH, Beane Freeman LE, Cantor KP (2007) Inorganic arsenic in drinking water: an evolving public health concern. J Natl Cancer Inst 99:906–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mahata J, Basu A, Ghoshal S, Sarkar JN, Roy AK, Poddar G, Nandy AK, Banerjee A, Ray K, Natarajan AT, Nilsson R, Giri AK (2003) Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India. Mutat Res 534:133–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maiti S, Chatterjee AK (2001) Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency. Arch Toxicol 75:531–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marchiset-Ferlay N, Savanovitch C, Sauvant-Rochat MP (2012) What is the best biomarker to assess arsenic exposure via drinking water? Environ Int 39:150–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marnett L (2000) Oxy-radicals and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis 21:361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mass MJ, Tennant A, Roop BC, Cullen WL, Styblo M, Thomas DJ, Kligerman AD (2001) Methylated trivalent arsenic species are genotoxic. Chem Res Toxicol 14:355–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Masuda S, Deguchi Y, Masuda Y, Watanabe T, Nukaya H, Terao Y, Takamura T, Wakabayashi K, Kinae N (2004) Genotoxicity of 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-enzotriazole (PBTA-6) and 4-amino-3,3-dichloro-5,4-dinitro-biphenyl (ADDB) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Mutat Res 560:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McCabe MJ Jr, Singh KP, Reddy SA, Chellandurai B, Pounds JG, Reiners JJ Jr, States JC (2000) Sensitivity of myelomonocytic leukemia cells to arsenite induced cell cycle disruption, apoptosis and enhanced differentiation is dependent on the interrelationship between arsenic concentration, duration of treatment and cell cycle phase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 295:724–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mouron SA, Grillo CA, Dulout FN, Golijow CD (2006) Induction of DNA strand breaks, DNA protein crosslinks and sister chromatid exchanges by arsenite in a human lung cell line. Toxicol In Vitro 20:279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Murad A, Houston AH (1992) Maturation of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) erythrocyte. Comp Biochem Physiol A 102:107–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nesnow S, Roop BC, Lambert G, Kadiiska M, Mason RP, Cullen WR, Mass MJ (2002) DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Chem Res Toxicol 15:1627–1634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ng JC (2005) Environmental contamination of arsenic and its toxicological impact on humans. Environ Chem 2:146–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ng JC, Wang J, Shraim A (2003) A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources. Chemosphere 52:1353–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nikinmaa M (1990) Vertebrate red blood cells. Adaptation of function to respiratory requirements. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nordstrom DK (2002) Worldwide occurences of arsenic in groundwater. Science 296:2143–2145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. NRC (National Research Council) (2001) Arsenic in drinking water: update. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  87. Palus J, Lewinska D, Dziubaltowaska E, Stepnik M, Beck J, Rydzynski K, Nilsson R (2005) DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic in copper smelters. Environ Mol Mutagen 46:81–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Piatek K, Schwerdtle T, Hartwig A, Bal W (2008) Monomethyl arsonous acid destroys a tetrathiolate zinc finger much more efficiently than inorganic arsenite: mechanistic considerations and consequences for DNA repair inhibition. Chem Res Toxicol 21:600–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rahman MM, Ng JC, Naidu R (2009) Chronic exposure of arsenic via drinking water and its adverse health impacts on humans. Environ Geochem Health 31:189–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ramirez OAB, Garcia FP (2005) Genotoxic damage in zebra fish (Danio rerio) by arsenic in waters from Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Mutagenesis 20:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ruiz-Ramos R, Lopez-Carrillo L, Rios-Perez AD, Vizcaya-Ruiz AD, Cebrian ME (2009) Sodium arsenite induces ROS generation, DNA oxidative damage, HO-1 and c-Myc proteins, NF-kB activation and cell proliferation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Mutat Res 674:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Saha D (2009) Arsenic groundwater contamination in parts of middle Ganga plain, Bihar. Curr Sci 97:753–755Google Scholar
  93. Samuel S, Kathirvel R, Jayavelu RT, Chinnakkannu P (2005) Protein oxidative damage in arsenic induced rat brain: influence of DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Toxicol Lett 155:27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwerdtle T, Walter I, Mackiw I, Hartwig A (2003) Induction of oxidative DNA damage by arsenic and its trivalent and pentavelent methylated metabolites in cultured human cells and isolated DNA. Carcinogenesis 24:967–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith AH, Smith MMH (2004) Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure. Toxicology 198:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sobsey MD, Bartram S (2003) Water quality and health in the new millennium: the role of World Health Organization Guidelines for drinking water quality. Forum Nutr 56:396–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Soto- Reyes E, Del Razo LM, Valverde M, Rajos OE (2005) Role of alkali labile sites, reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Biometals 18:493–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sykora P, Snow ET (2008) Modulation of DNA polymerase beta dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after low dose exposure to arsenite. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 228:385–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tates AD, Neuteboom I, Hofker M, den Engelse L (1980) A micronucleus technique for detecting clastogenic effects of mutagens/carcinogens (DEN/DMN) in hepatocytes of rat liver in vivo. Mutat Res 74:11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tian D, Ma H, Femg Z, Xia Y, Le Y, Le XC, Ni Z, Allen J, Collins B, Schreinemachers D, Mumford JL (2001) Analysis of micronuclei in exfoliated epithelial cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Inner Mangolia, China. J Toxicol Environ Health 64:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Udroiu I (2006) The micronucleus test in piscine erythrocytes. Aquat Toxicol 79:201–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2001) Arsenic, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS, the USEPA online chemical toxicity information service)Google Scholar
  103. Vahter M, Concha G (2001) Role of metabolism in arsenic toxicity. Pharmacol Toxicol 89:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Valko M, Orris H, Cronin MT (2005) Metal, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 12:1161–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. van Halem D, Bakker SA, Amy GL, van Dijk JC (2009) Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies. Drink Water Eng Sci 2:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ventura-Lima J, Fattorini D, Regoli F, Monserrat JM (2009a) Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses. Environ Pollut 157:3479–3484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ventura-Lima J, Castro MR, Acosta D, Fattorini D, Regoli F, Carvalho LM, Bohrer D, Geracitano LA, Barros DM, Silva RS, Bonan CD, Bogo MR, Monserrat JM (2009b) Effects of arsenic (As) exposure on the antioxidant status of gills of the zebra fish Danio rerio (Cypridinae). Comp Biochem Physiol C 149:538–543Google Scholar
  108. Ventura-Lima J, Bogo MR, Monserrat JM (2011) Arsenic toxicity in mammals and aquatic animals: a comparative biochemical approach. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vuyyuri SB, Ishaq M, Kuppala D, Grover P, Ahuja YR (2006) Evaluation of micronucleus frequencies and DNA damage in glass workers exposed to arsenic. Environ Mol Mutagen 47:562–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Walker M, Fosbury D (2009) Arsenic, As(III), and tungsten in Nevada County’s private water supplies. J Water Health 7:293–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang TS, Hsu TY, Chung CH, Wang AS, Bau DT, Jan KY (2001) Arsenic induced oxidative DNA adducts and DNA-protein cross-links in mammalian cells. Free Radic Biol Med 31:321–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wang TS, Chung CH, Wang AS, Bau DT, Samikkannu T, Jan KY, Cheng YM, Lee TC (2002) Endonuclease III, formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase and proteinase K additively enhance arsenic induced DNA strand breaks in human cells. Chem Res Toxicol 15:1254–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang YC, Chaung RH, Tung LC (2004) Comparison of the cytotoxicity induced by different exposure to sodium arsenite in two fish cell lines. Aquat Toxicol 69:67–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. WHO (World Health Organization) (2008) Guidelines for drinking water quality, incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, vol 1, 3rd edn. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  115. Yadav KK, Trivedi SP (2009a) Sub-lethal exposure of heavy metals induces micronuclei in fish, Channa punctata. Chemosphere 77:1495–1500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yadav KK, Trivedi SP (2009b) Chromosomal aberrations in a fish, Channa punctata after in vivo exposure to three heavy metals. Mutat Res 678:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yamanaka K, Kato K, Mizoi M, An Y, Takabayashi F, Nakano M, Hoshino MD, Okada S (2004) The role of active arsenic species produced by metabolic reduction of dimethyl arsenic acid in genotoxicity and tumorigenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:385–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amod Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vibudh P. Kesari
    • 1
  • Parimal K. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicogenetics Laboratory, Department of ZoologyPatna UniversityPatnaIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyK. M. College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations