, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 43–59 | Cite as

Effects of lanthanum chloride on glutamate level, intracellular calcium concentration and caspases expression in the rat hippocampus

  • Jinghua Yang
  • Qiufang Liu
  • Shengwen Wu
  • Qi Xi
  • Yuan Cai


Lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) can affect neurobehavioral development and impair cognitive abilities. The mechanism underlying LaCl3-induced neurotoxic effects is still unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the neuronal impairment induced by LaCl3 and discuss the possible mechanism from the aspects of the alteration of glutamate level, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), Bax, Bcl-2 and caspases expression in the hippocampus. Lactational rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 % LaCl3 in drinking water, respectively. Their offspring were exposed to LaCl3 by parental lactation and then administrated with 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 % LaCl3 in drinking water for 1 month. The results showed that 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 % LaCl3 exposure induced neuronal impairment in the hippocampus of young rat. Hippocampal glutamate level, [Ca2+]i and ratio of Bax and Bcl-2 expression increased significantly after LaCl3 exposure. Besides, LaCl3 exposure increased GRP78, GRP94, GADD153 and p-JNK expression, promoted the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-12, induced PARP cleavage and caused excessive apoptosis. These results indicate that LaCl3 increases glutamate level, [Ca2+]i and ratio of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, which cause excessive apoptosis by the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathway, and thus neuronal damages in the hippocampus.


Lanthanum Glutamate Intracellular calcium Caspases Hippocampus 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30800925 and 81072316).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinghua Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qiufang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shengwen Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qi Xi
    • 3
  • Yuan Cai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology, School of Public HealthChina Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public HealthChina Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyThe University of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA

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