, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 9–21 | Cite as

Perspective: the potential of pyrazole-based compounds in medicine

  • Frankline K. Keter
  • James Darkwa


Pyrazoles are widely used as core motifs for a large number of compounds for various applications such as catalysis, agro-chemicals, building blocks of other compounds and in medicine. The attractiveness of pyrazole and its derivatives is their versatility that allows for synthesis of a series of analogues with different moieties in them, thus affecting the electronics and by extension the properties of the resultant compounds. In medicine pyrazole is found as a pharmacophore in some of the active biological molecules. While pyrazole derivatives have been extensively studied for many applications including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiglycemic, anti-allergy and antiviral, much less has been reported on their metal counterparts in spite of the fact that metals have been shown to impart activity to ligands. Thus this perspective is intended to demonstrate the potential of pyrazole and pyrazolyl metal complexes in the areas of drug discovery and development. Several examples, that include palladium, platinum, copper, gold, zinc, cobalt, nickel, iron, copper, silver and gallium complexes, are used to bolster the above point. For the purposes of this review three areas are discussed, that is pyrazole metal complexes as: (i) anticancer, (ii) antibacterial/parasitic and (iii) antiviral agents.


Pyrazole Metal complexes Anticancer Antibacterial Antiparasitic Antiviral 



The authors would like to acknowledge Mintek and University of Johannesburg for support for some of the work cited in this review.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Materials DivisionMintekRandburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of JohannesburgAuckland ParkSouth Africa

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