Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements in macrofungi: what are the genuine concentrations?
- 331 Downloads
Concentrations of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements (REE) in 36 species of ectomycorrhizal (26 samples) and saprobic (25 samples) macrofungi from unpolluted sites with differing bedrock geochemistry were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analytical results are supported by use of certified reference materials (BCR-670, BCR-667, NIST-1575a) and the reliability of the determination of uranium was verified by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). It appears that data recently published on these elements are erroneous, in part because of use of an inappropriate analytical method; and in part because of apparent contamination by soil particles resulting in elevated levels of thorium and REE. Macrofungi from unpolluted areas, in general, did not accumulate high levels of the investigated metals. Concentrations of uranium and thorium were generally below 30 and 125 μg kg−1 (dry weight), respectively. Concentrations of REE in macrofungi did not exceed 360 μg kg−1 (dry weight) and their distribution more or less followed the trend observed in post-Archean shales and loess.
KeywordsICP-MS ENAA REE Fungi Bioaccumulation Metals
We are very grateful to Tjakko Stijve and Emil Jelínek for helpful comments on the manuscript. This research was supported by the projects GAUK no. 3010 (The Grant Agency of Charles University) and the project IAA600480801 (The Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic). Institutional support was provided by Institutional Research Plans (IRP) AV0Z30130516 (Institute of Geology, ASCR, Prague) and IRP AV0Z10480505 (Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, Řež near Prague).
- Borovička J, Kotrba P, Gryndler M, Mihaljevič M, Řanda Z, Rohovec J, Cajthaml T, Stijve T, Dunn CE (2010) Bioaccumulation of silver in ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi from pristine and polluted areas. Sci Total Environ 408:2733–2744. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.02 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Boynton WV (1984) Cosmochemistry of the rare earth elements: meteorite studies. In: Henderson P (ed) Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Johanson KJ, Nikolova I, Taylor AFS, Vinichuk MM (2004) Uptake of elements by fungi in the Forsmark area. Technical Report TR-04-26, Swedish nuclear fuel and waste management Co, Stockholm, Sweden. http://www.skb.se/upload/publications/pdf/TR-04-26webb.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2011
- Kabata-Pendias A (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edition. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Osobová M, Urban V, Jedelský PL, Borovička J, Gryndler M, Ruml T, Kotrba P (2011) Three metallothionein isoforms and sequestration of intracellular silver in hyperaccumulator Amanita strobiliformis. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03634.x
- Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) The composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick RL, Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) The crust: treatise on geochemistry, vol 3. Elsevier-Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Šlejkovec Z, Byrne AR, Stijve T, Goessler W, Irgolic KJ (1997) Arsenic compounds in higher fungi. Appl Organomet Chem 11:673–682. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0739(199708)11:8<673:AID-AOC620>3.0.CO;2-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stijve T, Andrey D, Goessler W, Guinberteau J, Dupuy G (2001a) Étude comparative des métaux lourds et d’autres éléments traces dans Gyrophragmium dunalii et dans les Agarics jaunissants de la section Arvenses. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 117:133–144Google Scholar
- Stijve T, Andrey D, Lucchini G, Goessler W (2001b) Simultaneous uptake of rare earth elements, aluminium, iron, and calcium by various macromycetes. Australasian Mycologist 20:92–98Google Scholar
- Stijve T, Andrey D, Lucchini G, Goessler W (2002) Lanthanides and other less common metals in mushrooms. Deut Lebensm-Rundsch 98:82–87Google Scholar
- Stijve T, Goessler W, Dupuy G (2004) Influence of soil particles on concentrations of aluminium, iron, calcium and other metals in mushrooms. Deut Lebensm-Rundsch 100:10–13Google Scholar