Cadmium induced mitochondrial redox changes in germinating pea seed
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Mitochondria play an essential role in producing the energy required for seedling growth following imbibition. Heavy metals, such as cadmium impair mitochondrial functioning in part by altering redox regulation. The activities of two protein redox systems present in mitochondria, thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx), were analysed in the cotyledons and embryo of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germinating seeds exposed to toxic Cd concentration. Compared to controls, Cd-treated germinating seeds showed a decrease in total soluble protein content, but an increase in –SH content. Under Cd stress conditions, Grx and glutathione reductase (GR) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) concentrations decreased both in cotyledons and the embryo. Similar results were obtained with the Trx system: Trx and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) activities were not stimulated, whereas total NAD(P) contents diminished in the embryo. However, Cd enhanced the levels of all components of the Trx system in the cotyledons. On the other hand, Cd caused a significant increase in oxidative stress parameters such as the redox ratio of coenzymes (oxidized to reduced forms) and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. These results indicate that Cd induces differential redox responses on different seed tissues. We suggest that neither Grx system nor Trx one may improve the redox status of mitochondrial thiols in the embryo of germinating pea seeds exposed to Cd toxicity, but in the cotyledons the contribution of Trx/NTR/NADPH can be established in despite the vulnerability of the coenzyme pools due to enzymatic oxidation.
KeywordsCadmium Germination Mitochondria Pea Redox
NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase
Financial support for this work was received from the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology (99/UR/09-18) and INRA-Henri Poincaré University, French (Grant to Moêz Smiri).
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