Impact of cadmium on aquatic bird Cairina moschata
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The impact on palmiped Cairina moschata of two levels of dietary cadmium (Cd) contamination (C1: 1 mg kg−1 and C10: 10 mg kg−1) was investigated on liver gene expression by real-time PCR. Genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in antioxidant defences, detoxification and in DNA damage repair were studied. Metallothionein (MT) protein levels and Cd bioaccumulation were also investigated in liver, kidneys and muscle. Male ducks were subjected to three periods of exposure: 10, 20 and 40 days. Cd was mainly bioaccumulated in kidneys first and in liver. The concentrations in liver and kidneys appeared to reach a stable level at 20 days of contamination even if the concentrations in muscle still increased. Cd triggered the enhancement of mitochondrial metabolism, the establishment of antioxidant defences (superoxide dismutase Mn and Cu/Zn; catalase) and of DNA repair from 20 days of contamination. Discrepancies were observed in liver between MT protein levels and MT gene up-regulation. MT gene expression appeared to be a late hour biomarker.
KeywordsCadmium Palmiped Cairina moschata Gene expression Metallothionein
The authors would like to thank the Conseil Général des Landes (France) for their financial support and the INRA of Artiguères for technical help.
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