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Table 3 Mean (± SE) annual CH4 and CO2 fluxes, coefficients of variation (CV), NH4+ intensity, NO3 intensity, annual water-filled pore space and soil temperature for different land use types at the smallholder and tea estate sites, from the SW Mau forest, Kenya

From: Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from forests and other land use types in an African tropical montane region

Land use Plot code Annual CH4 (kg CH4–C ha−1 year−1) CV (%) Annual CO2 (Mg CO2–C ha−1 year−1) CV (%) NH4+ intensity (g N kg−1) NO3 intensity (g N kg−1) Annual WFPS (%) CV (%) Annual T (°C) CV (%)
Smallholdersite            
 Forest SHF1 − 3.16   8.71   4.3 5.7 46   15.2  
 Forest SHF2 − 3.64   8.21   3.5 3.3 46   15.5  
 Forest SHF3 − 2.42   6.54   2.6 3.1 56   14.9  
  Mean − 3.08 ± 0.35a 20 7.8 ± 0.7b 4.9 3.5 ± 0.5a 4.0 ± 0.8a 49 ± 5b 11.5 15.2 ± 0.2b 1.9
 Grazing SHG1 0.08   22.58   5.8 1.0 58   19.6  
 Grazing SHG2 − 0.40   31.36   4 2.1 53   18.5  
 Grazing SHG3 − 0.77   22.92   3.9 1.1 61   18.2  
  Mean − 0.36 ± 0.25b 119 25.6 ± 2.9a 19.4 4.6 ± 0.6a 1.4 ± 0.4a 57 ± 2a 6.5 18.8 ± 0.4a 3.8
 Tea SHT1 − 1.60   6.01   9.2 4.9 52   14.8  
 Tea SHT2 − 1.36   8.53   3.1 2.3 48   15.8  
 Tea SHT3 − 1.29   9.05   0.8 0.9 53   16.4  
  Mean − 1.44 ± 0.12b 14 7.9 ± 0.9b 20.6 4.4 ± 2.5a 2.7 ± 1.2a 51 ± 2b 5.5 15.7 ± 0.5b 5.1
Tea estatesite            
 Forest TEF1 − 6.27   9.26   2.6 3.6 43   15.1  
 Forest TEF2 − 6.61   8.81   2.2 3.8 41   15.3  
 Forest TEF3 − 4.64   8.23   1.7 5.3 45   15.3  
  Mean − 5.84 ± 0.61a 18 8.8 ± 0.3a 5.9 2.2 ± 0.3b 4.2 ± 0.5a 43 ± 1b 4.4 15.2 ± 0.1b 0.8
 Tea TET1 − 0.87   5.13   4.4 8.4 56   15.0  
 Tea TET2 − 1.60   6.59   4.2 4.3 55   15.6  
 Tea TET3 − 1.87   5.01   4.8 3.8 49   15.9  
  Mean − 1.44 ± 0.29c 10 5.6 ± 0.5c 15.8 4.5 ± 0.2a 5.5 ± 1.5a 54 ± 2a 13.8 15.5 ± 0.3ab 2.9
 Eucalyptus TEP1 − 3.51   7.18   1.2 1.7 52   16.0  
 Eucalyptus TEP2 − 3.07   7.26   2.2 3.2 41   16.0  
 Eucalyptus TEP3 − 3.71   7.04   2.0 2.6 42   15.8  
  Mean − 3.43 ± 0.19b 36 7.2 ± 0.1b 1.6 1.8 ± 0.3b 2.5 ± 0.4a 45 ± 4b 6.9 15.9 ± 0.1a 0.6