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Table 2 Mean (± SE) soil chemical and physical properties in 0–0.05, 0.05–0.2 and 0.2–0.3 m soil depth for different land use types at the smallholder and tea estate sites in the SW Mau forest area, Kenya

From: Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from forests and other land use types in an African tropical montane region

Soil depth (m) Site Land use Plot code Total Nitrogen (%) Total Carbon (%) SOC (Mg ha−1) SON (Mg ha−1) C:N ratio pH Bulk density (g cm−3) Clay (%) Sand (%)
0–0.05 Smallholder Forest SHF 1-3 1.24 ± 0.05a 13.4 ± 0.7a 47.0 ± 2.3a 4.3 ± 0.2a 10.8 ± 0.1b 6.6 ± 0.1a 0.65 ± 0.03b 22 ± 0.1c 46 ± 2.0a
  Smallholder Grazing SHG 1-3 0.74 ± 0.03b 7.9 ± 0.3b 37.6 ± 1.2b 3.7 ± 0.1b 10.9 ± 0.1b 6.0 ± 0.1b 0.94 ± 0.02a 33 ± 1.8b 39 ± 2.4b
  Smallholder Tea SHT 1-3 0.69 ± 0.03b 8.4 ± 0.5b 29.7 ± 1.8c 2.5 ± 0.1c 11.9 ± 0.2a 5.4 ± 0.21b 0.72 ± 0.05b 45 ± 1.0c 24 ± 2.0c
  Tea estate Forest TEF 1-3 0.94 ± 0.04a 9.5 ± 0.5a 28.6 ± 1.5b 2.8 ± 0.1a 10.1 ± 0.1b 5.1 ± 0.01a 0.60 ± 0.03b 49 ± 1.5b 21 ± 1.3a
  Tea estate Eucalyptus TEP 1-3 0.61 ± 0.02b 7.0 ± 0.3b 25.9 ± 1.0b 2.3 ± 0.1b 11.3 ± 0.7a 5.4 ± 0.11a 0.74 ± 0.03a 61 ± 1.8a 18 ± 0.3a
  Tea estate Tea TET 1-3 0.91 ± 0.10a 10.6 ± 1.3a 36.0 ± 4.4a 3.0 ± 0.4a 12.0 ± 0.1a 3.8 ± 0.06b 0.67 ± 0.04b 65 ± 4.8a 19 ± 2.9a
0.05–0.2 Smallholder Forest SHF 1-3 0.58 ± 0.02a 5.3 ± 0.12b 63.9 ± 1.5b 6.9 ± 0.2b 9.3 ± 0.2b 6.1 ± 0.09a 0.80 ± 0.03b 49 ± 1.3a 21 ± 0.7b
  Smallholder Grazing SHG 1-3 0.64 ± 0.03a 6.7 ± 0.3a 91.9 ± 3.7a 8.8 ± 0.5a 10.6 ± 0.2b 6.0 ± 0.07ab 0.93 ± 0.02a 40 ± 4.2b 30 ± 3.1a
  Smallholder Tea SHT 1-3 0.46 ± 0.01b 5.1 ± 0.1b 64.1 ± 1.0b 5.8 ± 0.2c 11.2 ± 0.3b 5.7 ± 0.1b 0.84 ± 0.03b 49 ± 1.0a 22 ± 0.0b
  Tea estate Forest TEF 1-3 0.44 ± 0.02a 4.3 ± 0.2b 40.1 ± 3.6c 4.5 ± 0.2b 9.7 ± 0.2b 4.8 ± 0.1b 0.68 ± 0.04b 48 ± 1.2a 24 ± 3.4a
  Tea estate Eucalyptus TEP 1-3 0.42 ± 0.02a 4.6 ± 0.2b 54.3 ± 2.1b 5.2 ± 0.2a 10.7 ± 0.2b 5.5 ± 0.1a 0.79 ± 0.03a 57 ± 0.7a 18 ± 1.2b
  Tea estate Tea TET 1-3 0.46 ± 0.01a 5.7 ± 0.2a 62.4 ± 3.2a 5.1 ± 0.2a 12.8 ± 0.3a 4.1 ± 0.05c 0.74 ± 0.02a 53 ± 1.8a 21 ± 2.9ab
0.2–0.3 Smallholder Forest SHF 1-3 0.47 ± 0.03a 4.5 ± 0.21b 35.4 ± 1.7c 3.7 ± 0.3b 9.7 ± 0.30b 5.7 ± 0.10b 0.79 ± 0.02b 51 ± 3.7ab 21 ± 1.8a
  Smallholder Grazing SHG 1-3 0.49 ± 0.02a 5.4 ± 0.16a 51.7 ± 1.5a 4.7 ± 0.2a 11.2 ± 0.29a 6.0 ± 0.04a 0.96 ± 0.02a 47 ± 5.1b 25 ± 2.1a
  Smallholder Tea SHT 1-3 0.47 ± 0.04a 5.3 ± 033a 44.9 ± 2.8b 4.0 ± 0.4a 11.5 ± 0.38a 5.9 ± 0.07ab 0.85 ± 0.03b 59 ± 5.0a 16 ± 2.0b
  Tea estate Forest TEF 1-3 0.43 ± 0.01a 4.3 ± 0.15b 30.6 ± 1.1b 3.1 ± 0.1a 9.9 ± 0.18c 4.8 ± 0.09b 0.71 ± 0.04b 53 ± 0.7b 20 ± 0.1b
  Tea estate Eucalyptus TEP 1-3 0.37 ± 0.02b 3.9 ± 0.16b 32.5 ± 1.3b 3.0 ± 0.1a 11.0 ± 0.18b 5.5 ± 0.05a 0.82 ± 0.03a 59 ± 0.7a 19 ± 0.7b
  Tea estate Tea TET 1-3 0.45 ± 0.01a 5.6 ± 0.18a 41.4 ± 1.3a 3.3 ± 0.1a 12.5 ± 0.16a 4.1 ± 0.05c 0.74 ± 0.02b 52 ± 0.1b 26 ± 1.2c
  1. Same letters following means indicate no significant different among the land use types within the soil depth and site (p > 0.05)