, Volume 138, Issue 2, pp 171–195 | Cite as

The C-biogeochemistry of a Midwestern USA agricultural impoundment in context: Lake Decatur in the intensively managed landscape critical zone observatory

  • Neal E. Blair
  • Elana L. Leithold
  • A. N. Thanos Papanicolaou
  • Christopher G. Wilson
  • Laura Keefer
  • Erin Kirton
  • David Vinson
  • Doug Schnoebelen
  • Bruce Rhoads
  • Mingjing Yu
  • Quinn Lewis


The damming of rivers has created hotspots for organic carbon sequestration and methane production on a global scale as the reservoirs intercept fluvial suspended and dissolved loads. To better understand how the C-biogeochemistry of a reservoir responds to watershed processes and evolves over time, Lake Decatur, located in the Intensively Managed Landscape Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) was studied. Solid phase analyses (% organic C, C/N, δ13C, δ15N) of soils and sediments sampled from stream bank exposures, river suspensions, and the lake bottom were conducted to characterize organic C (OC) sources throughout the sedimentary system. Agriculturally-driven soil erosion rapidly altered lake bathymetry causing an evolution of sedimentary and OC deposition patterns, which in turn shaped where and when methane production occurred. A positive correlation between OC accumulation rate and porewater dissolved inorganic C (DIC) δ13C profiles indicates that methane generation is strongly influenced by OC burial rate. The sources of the lake bed particulate organic C (POC) have also evolved over time. Drowned vegetation and/or shoreline inputs were dominant initially in areas adjacent to the original river channel but were rapidly overwhelmed by the deposition of sediments derived from eroded agricultural soils. Eutrophication of the lake followed with the onset of heavy fertilizer application post-1960. This succession of sources is expected to be commonplace for reservoirs greater than ~ 50–60 years old in agricultural settings because of the relative timing of tillage and fertilizer practices. The 13C/12C ratios of methane from Lake Decatur were more depleted in 13C than what is commonly expected for freshwater sedimentary environments. The 13C-depletion suggests that CO2-reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway rather than the anticipated acetate dissimilation process. The isotopic observations reveal that commonly held assumptions about methane production and its C-isotopic signature in freshwater systems are over-simplified and not strictly applicable to this system.


Reservoirs C-cycle Methane Carbon sequestration 



Financial support was provided by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant # EAR-1331906 for the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IML-CZO), a multi-institutional collaborative effort. Funding was also provided by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern (ISEN). DV received support from a NSF Earth Sciences Postdoctoral Fellowship (EAR 1249916). We thank Laurel Childress, Martin Goshev, Paul Roots, Yue Zeng and Koushik Dutta for their assistance with the field and laboratory work. Special thanks are given to Joe Nihiser of the City of Decatur for his support and assistance with this project. Andrew Stumpf provided information concerning soil sampling locations and classifications as well as assistance with soil sampling.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abban B et al (2016) An enhanced Bayesian fingerprinting framework for studying sediment source dynamics in intensively managed landscapes. Water Resour Res 52:4646–4673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alperin MJ, Blair NE, Albert DB, Hoehler TM, Martens CS (1992) Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 6:271–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alperin MJ, Blair NE, Albert DB, Hoehler TM (1993) The carbon-isotope biogeochemistry of methane production in anoxic sediments 2. A laboratory experiment. In: Oremland RS (ed) Biogeochemistry of global change. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 594–605Google Scholar
  4. Amundson R et al (2003) Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen. Glob Biogeochem Cycles. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery GB, Martens CS (1999) Controls on the stable carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane produced in a tidal freshwater estuarine sediment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:1075–1082. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barros N et al (2011) Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs linked to reservoir age and latitude. Nat Geosci 4:593–596. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berhe AA, Harte J, Harden JW, Torn MS (2007) The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sink. Bioscience 57:337–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beusen AHW, Dekkers ALM, Bouwman AF, Ludwig W, Harrison J (2005) Estimation of global river transport of sediments and associated particulate C, N, and P. Global Biogeochem Cycles. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair N (1998) The delta C-13 Of biogenic methane in marine sediments: the influence of C-org deposition rate. Chem Geol 152:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair NE, Aller RC (1995) Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:3707–3715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair NE, Aller RC (2012) The fate of terrestrial organic carbon in the marine environment. In: Carlson CA, Giovannoni SJ (eds) Annual review of marine science, vol 4. pp 401–423.
  12. Blair NE, Carter WD (1992) The carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate from a methanogenic marine sediment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56:1247–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blair N, Leu A, Munoz E, Olsen J, Kwong E, Des Marais D (1985) Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:996–1001Google Scholar
  14. Blair NE, Boehme SE, Carter WD (1993) The carbon-isotope biogeochemistry of methane production in anoxic sediments 1. Field observations. In: Oremland RS (ed) Biogeochemistry of global change. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 574–593Google Scholar
  15. Blair NE, Leithold EL, Aller RC (2004) From bedrock to burial: the evolution of particulate organic carbon across coupled watershed-continental margin systems. Mar Chem 92:141–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blair NE, Leithold EL, Brackley H, Trustrum N, Page M, Childress L (2010) Terrestrial sources and export of particulate organic carbon in the Waipaoa sedimentary system: problems, progress and processes. Mar Geol 270:108–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boehme SE, Blair NE, Chanton JP, Martens CS (1996) A mass balance of C-13 and C-12 in an organic-rich methane-producing marine sediment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:3835–3848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bogner WC (2001) Sedimentation survey of Lake Decatur’s Basin 6, Macon County. Illinois State Water Survey, Watershed Science Section, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  19. Bogner WC (2002) Sedimentation survey of Lake Decatur’s Big and Sand Creek Basins, Macon County. Illinois State Water Survey, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  20. Bogner WC, Fitzpatrick WP, Bhowmik NG (1984) Sedimentation Survey of Lake Decatur. Surface Water Section The University of Illinois, Illinois State Water Survey Division, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  21. Borah DK, Demissie M, Keefer LL (2002) AGNPS-based assessment of the impact of BMPs on nitrate-nitrogen discharging into an Illinois water supply lake. Water Int 27:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brackley HL et al (2010) Dispersal and transformation of organic carbon across an episodic, high sediment discharge continental margin, Waipaoa sedimentary system, New Zealand. Mar Geol 270:202–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brune GM (1953) Trap efficiency of reservoirs. Trans Am Geophys Union 34:407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burdige DJ (2005) Burial of terrestrial organic matter in marine sediments: a re-assessment. Global Biogeochem Cycles. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burdige DJ (2007) Preservation of organic matter in marine sediments: controls, mechanisms, and an imbalance in sediment organic carbon budgets? Chem Rev 107:467–485. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buswell AM, Sollo FW (1948) The mechanisms of the methane fermentation. J Am Chem Soc 70:1778–1780. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clow DW, Stackpoole SM, Verdin KL, Butman DE, Zhu ZL, Krabbenhoft DP, Striegl RG (2015) Organic carbon burial in lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States. Environ Sci Technol 49:7614–7622. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Conrad R, Claus P, Casper P (2009) Characterization of stable isotope fractionation during methane production in the sediment of a Eutrophic Lake, Lake Dagow, Germany. Limnol Oceanogr 54:457–471. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Conrad R, Klose M, Yuan Q, Lu YH, Chidthaisong A (2012) Stable carbon isotope fractionation, carbon flux partitioning and priming effects in anoxic soils during methanogenic degradation of straw and soil organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 49:193–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Costello MJ, Cheung A, De Hauwere N (2010) Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world’s seas, oceans, and countries. Environ Sci Technol 44:8821–8828. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cui L, Butler HJ, Martin-Hirsch PL, Martin FL (2016) Aluminium foil as a potential substrate for ATR-FTIR, transflection FTIR or Raman spectrochemical analysis of biological specimens. Anal Methods 8:481–487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Deemer BR et al (2016) Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesis. Bioscience 66:949–964. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dietz RD, Engstrom DR, Anderson NJ (2015) Patterns and drivers of change in organic carbon burial across a diverse landscape: insights from 116 Minnesota Lakes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 29:708–727. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dlugokencky EJ, Nisbet EG, Fisher R, Lowry D (2011) Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers. Philos Trans Royal Soc A-Math Phys Eng Sci 369:2058–2072. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Downing JA et al (2006) The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. Limnol Oceanogr 51:2388–2397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Downing JA et al (2008) Sediment organic carbon burial in agriculturally eutrophic impoundments over the last century. Global Biogeochem Cycles. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Farquhar GD (1983) On the nature of carbon isotope discrimination in C-4 species. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 10:205–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Farquhar GD, Ehleringer JR, Hubick KT (1989) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:503–537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fitzpatrick WP, Bogner WC, Bhowmik NG (1987) Sedimentation and Hydrologic Processes in Lake Deactur and Its Watershed. Illinois State Water Survey, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  40. Fox JF, Papanicolaou AN (2008) Application of the spatial distribution of nitrogen stable isotopes for sediment tracing at the watershed scale. J Hydrol 358:46–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Francis TB, Schindler DE, Holtgrieve GW, Larson ER, Scheuerell MD, Semmens BX, Ward EJ (2011) Habitat structure determines resource use by zooplankton in temperate lakes. Ecol Lett 14:364–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fu B, Conrad R, Blaser M (2018) Potential contribution of acetogenesis to anaerobic degradation in methanogenic rice field soils. Soil Biol Biochem 119:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Galloway JN (1998) The global nitrogen cycle: changes and consequences. Environ Pollut 102:15–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Galy V, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B, Eglinton T (2015) Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion. Nature. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gellis AC (2013) Factors influencing storm-generated suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in four basins of contrasting land use, humid-tropical Puerto Rico. Catena 104:39–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gellis AC, Fuller CC, Van Metre PC (2017) Sources and ages of fine-grained sediment to streams using fallout radionuclides in the Midwestern United States. J Environ Manag 194:73–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gelwicks JT, Risatti JB, Hayes JM (1989) Carbon isotope effects associated with autotrophic acetogenesis. Org Geochem 14:441–446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grill G, Lehner B, Lumsdon AE, MacDonald GK, Zarfl C, Liermann CR (2015) An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales. Environ Res Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grimley DA, Anders AM, Bettis III EA, Bates BL, Wang JJ, Butler SK, Huot S (2017) Using magnetic fly ash to identify post-settlement alluvium and its record of atmospheric pollution, central USA. Anthropocene 17:84–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gruca-Rokosz R, Tomaszek JA (2015) Methane and carbon dioxide in the sediment of a eutrophic reservoir: production pathways and diffusion fluxes at the sediment-water interface. Water Air Soil Pollut. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamilton DP, Mitchell SF (1996) An empirical model for sediment resuspension in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 317:209–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harden JW, Sharpe JM, Parton WJ, Ojima DS, Fries TL, Huntington TG, Dabney SM (1999) Dynamic replacement and loss of soil carbon on eroding cropland. Global Biogeochem Cycles 13:885–901. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hayes JM (1993) Factors controlling 13C contents of sedimentary organic compounds: principles and evidence. Mar Geol 113:111–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hedges JI, Keil RG (1995) Sedimentary organic-matter preservation—an assessment and speculative synthesis. Mar Chem 49:81–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hedges JI, Oades JM (1997) Comparative organic geochemistries of soils and marine sediments. Org Geochem 27:319–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heuer VB, Kruger M, Elvert M, Hinrichs KU (2010) Experimental studies on the stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate in lake sediments. Org Geochem 41:22–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoehler TM, Albert DB, Alperin MJ, Martens CS (1999) Acetogenesis from CO2 in an anoxic marine sediment. Limnol Oceanogr 44:662–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Itoh M et al (2017) Integrating isotopic, microbial, and modeling approaches to understand methane dynamics in a frequently disturbed deep reservoir in Taiwan. Ecol Res 32:861–871. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jeong JJ et al (2012) Differential storm responses of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in a mountainous headwater stream, investigated by high-frequency, in situ optical measurements. J Geophys Res Biogeosci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jung BJ et al (2012) Storm pulses and varying sources of hydrologic carbon export from a mountainous watershed. J Hydrol 440:90–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Juracek KE (2015) The aging of America’s reservoirs: in-reservoir and downstream physical changes and habitat implications. J Am Water Resour Assoc 51:168–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keefer LL, Bauer E (2011) Upper Sangamon River watershed monitoring data for the USEPA targeted watershed study: 2005–2008. Illinois State Water Survey, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  63. Knoll LB, Vanni MJ, Renwick WH, Kollie S (2014) Burial rates and stoichiometry of sedimentary carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Midwestern US reservoirs. Freshw Biol 59:2342–2353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lal R (2003) Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environ Int 29:437–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lee KY, van Geldern R, Barth JAC (2017) A high-resolution carbon balance in a small temperate catchment: insights from the Schwabach River, Germany. Appl Geochem 85:86–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lehner B et al (2011) High-resolution mapping of the world’s reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow management. Front Ecol Environ 9:494–502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leithold EL, Perkey DW, Blair NE, Creamer TN (2005) Sedimentation and carbon burial on the northern California continental shelf: the signatures of land-use change. Cont Shelf Res 25:349–371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leithold EL et al (2013) Signals of watershed change preserved in organic carbon buried on the continental margin seaward of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. Mar Geol 346:355–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leithold EL, Blair NE, Wegmann KW (2016) Source-to-sink sedimentary systems and global carbon burial: a river runs through it. Earth Sci Rev 153:30–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lima IBT, Ramos FM, Bambace LAW, Rosa RR (2008) Methane emissions from large dams as renewable energy resources: a developing nation perspective. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 13:193–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ludwig W, Probst JL, Kempe S (1996) Predicting the oceanic input of organic carbon by continental erosion. Global Biogeochem Cycles 10:23–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maavara T, Lauerwald R, Regnier P, Van Cappellen P (2017) Global perturbation of organic carbon cycling by river damming. Nature Communications. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maeck A et al (2013) Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots. Environ Sci Technol 47:8130–8137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Martens CS, Blair NE, Green CD, Des Marais DJ (1986) Seasonal-variations in the stable carbon isotopic signature of biogenic methane in a coastal sediment. Science 233:1300–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Martens CS, Albert DB, Alperin MJ (1998) Biogeochemical processes controlling methane in gassy coastal sediments—Part 1. A model coupling organic matter flux to gas production, oxidation and transport. Cont Shelf Res 18:1741–1770. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mendonça R, Müller RA, Clow D, Verpoorter C, Raymond P, Tranvik LJ, Sobek S (2017) Organic carbon burial in global lakes and reservoirs. Nature Commun 8:7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mulholland PJ, Elwood JW (1982) The role of lake and reservoir sediments as sinks in the perturbed global Carbon-cycle. Tellus 34:490–499Google Scholar
  78. Murase J, Sugimoto A (2001) Spatial distribution of methane in the Lake Biwa sediments and its carbon isotopic compositions. Geochem J 35:257–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Neal CWM, Anders AM (2015) Suspended sediment supply dominated by bank erosion in a low-gradient agricultural watershed, Wildcat Slough, Fisher, Illinois, United States. J Soil Water Conserv 70:145–155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Brien BJ, Stout JD (1978) Movement and turnover of soil organic-matter as indicated by carbon isotope measurements. Soil Biol Biochem 10:309–317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. O’Leary MH (1981) Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Phytochemistry 20:553–567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Olley JM (2002) Organic carbon supply to a large lowland river and implications for aquatic ecosystems. In: Dyer FJ, Thoms MC, Olley JM (eds) Structure, function and management implications of fluvial sedimentary systems, vol 276. IAHS Publication, London, pp 27–33Google Scholar
  83. Peterson BJ, Fry B (1987) Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 18:293–320. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rhoads BL, Lewis QW, Andresen W (2016) Historical changes in channel network extent and channel planform in an intensively managed landscape: natural versus human-induced effects. Geomorphology 252:17–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rinta P et al (2015) An inter-regional assessment of concentrations and delta C-13 values of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon in small European lakes. Aquat Sci 77:667–680. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ritchie JC (1989) Carbon content of sediments of small reservoirs. Water Resour Bull 25:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Robbins JA, Edgington DN (1975) Determination of recent sedimentation rates in Lake Michigan using Pb-210 and Cs-137. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:285–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Robertson AI, Bunn SE, Boon PI, Walker KF (1999) Sources, sinks and transformations of organic carbon in Australian floodplain rivers. Mar Freshw Res 50:813–829. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rowland R, Inamdar S, Parr T (2017) Evolution of particulate organic matter (POM) along a headwater drainage: role of sources, particle size class, and storm magnitude. Biogeochemistry 133:181–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Saunois M et al (2016) The global methane budget 2000–2012. Earth Syst Sci Data 8:697–751. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schlünz B, Schneider RR (2000) Transport of terrestrial organic carbon to the oceans by rivers: re-estimating flux- and burial rates. Int J Earth Sci 88:599–606. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Simon A, Curini A, Darby SE, Langendoen EJ (2000) Bank and near-bank processes in an incised channel. Geomorphology 35:193–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith SV, Sleezer RO, Renwick WH, Buddemeier R (2005) Fates of eroded soil organic carbon: mississippi basin case study. Ecol Appl 15:1929–1940. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sobek S, DelSontro T, Wongfun N, Wehrli B (2012) Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir. Geophys Res Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. St Louis VL, Kelly CA, Duchemin E, Rudd JWM, Rosenberg DM (2000) Reservoir surfaces as sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere: a global estimate. Bioscience 50:766–775.[0766:rsasog];2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stallard RF (1998) Terrestrial sedimentation and the carbon cycle: coupling weathering and erosion to carbon burial. Global Biogeochem Cycles 12:231–257. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Syvitski JPM, Vorosmarty CJ, Kettner AJ, Green P (2005) Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308:376–380. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Syvitski JPM et al (2009) Sinking deltas due to human activities. Nat Geosci 2:681–686. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Teeri JA, Stowe LG (1976) Climatic patterns and distribution of C4 grasses in North-America. Oecologia 23:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thomas CJ, Blair NE, Alperin MJ, DeMaster DJ, Jahnke RA, Martens CS, Mayer L (2002) Organic carbon deposition on the North Carolina continental slope off Cape Hatteras (USA). Deep-Sea Res Part II 49:4687–4709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tremblay L, Benner R (2006) Microbial contributions to N-immobilization and organic matter preservation in decaying plant detritus. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:133–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Trumbore S (2009) Radiocarbon and soil carbon dynamics. In: Annual review of earth and planetary sciences, vol 37. Palo Alto, California, pp 47–66.
  103. Varis O, Kummu M, Harkonen S, Huttunen JT (2012) Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs. In: Tortajada C (ed) Impacts of large dams: a global assessment, water resources development and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vinson DS, Blair NE, Martini AM, Larter S, Orem WH, McIntosh JC (2017) Microbial methane from in situ biodegradation of coal and shale: a review and reevaluation of hydrogen and carbon isotope signatures. Chem Geol 453:128–145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vorosmarty CJ, Meybeck M, Fekete B, Sharma K, Green P, Syvitski JPM (2003) Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global impact from registered river impoundments. Global Planet Change 39:169–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Walling DE (2006) Human impact on land-ocean sediment transfer by the world’s rivers. Geomorphology 79:192–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang ZG, Hoffmann T, Six J, Kaplan JO, Govers G, Doetterl S, Van Oost K (2017) Human-induced erosion has offset one-third of carbon emissions from land cover change. Nature Climate Change. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. WCD World Commission on Dams (2000) Dams and development: a new framework for decision making. Earthscan Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  109. West WE, McCarthy SM, Jones SE (2015) Phytoplankton lipid content influences freshwater lake methanogenesis. Freshw Biol 60:2261–2269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. West WE, Creamer KP, Jones SE (2016) Productivity and depth regulate lake contributions to atmospheric methane. Limnol Oceanogr 61:S51–S61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Whiticar MJ, Faber E, Schoell M (1986) Biogenic methane formation in marine and fresh-water environments—CO2 reduction versus acetate fermentation isotopic evidence. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:693–709. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wilkinson BH, McElroy BJ (2007) The impact of humans on continental erosion and sedimentation. Geol Soc Am Bull 119:140–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilson CG, Matisoff G, Whiting PJ, Klarer DM (2005) Transport of fine sediment through a wetland using radionuclide tracers: old woman creek, OH. J Great Lakes Res 31:56–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wren DG, Wells RR, Wilson CG, Cooper CM, Smith S (2007) Sedimentation in three small erosion control reservoirs in northern Mississippi. J Soil Water Conserv 62:137–144Google Scholar
  115. Yu M, Rhoads BL (2018) Floodplains as a source of fine sediment in grazed landscapes: tracing the source of suspended sediment in the headwaters of an intensively managed agricultural landscape. Geomorphology. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zeikus JG (1983) Metabolism of one-carbon compounds by chemotrophic anaerobes. Adv Microb Physiol 24:215–299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neal E. Blair
    • 1
  • Elana L. Leithold
    • 2
  • A. N. Thanos Papanicolaou
    • 3
  • Christopher G. Wilson
    • 3
  • Laura Keefer
    • 4
  • Erin Kirton
    • 5
  • David Vinson
    • 6
  • Doug Schnoebelen
    • 7
  • Bruce Rhoads
    • 8
  • Mingjing Yu
    • 8
  • Quinn Lewis
    • 8
  1. 1.Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Earth and Planetary SciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric SciencesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  4. 4.Illinois State Water SurveyChampaignUSA
  5. 5.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  6. 6.Department of Geography & Earth SciencesUniversity of North Carolina – CharlotteCharlotteUSA
  7. 7.USGS, Texas Water Science CenterSan AntonioUSA
  8. 8.Department of Geography and Geographic Information ScienceUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations