Biological nitrogen fixation in a post-volcanic chronosequence from south-central Chile
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Biological nitrogen fixation is a key ecosystem function incorporating new nitrogen (N) during primary successions. Increasing evidence from tropical and northern temperate forests shows that phosphorus (P) and molybdenum (Mo) either alone or in combination limit the activity of free-living diazotrophs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Mo, P, and carbon (C) addition, either singly or in combination, and moisture, on diazotrophic activity in a post-volcanic forest chronosequence in south-fentral Chile. Diazotrophic activity, both free-living (associated with fine litter) and symbiotic (associated with the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum and the cyanolichens Pseudocyphellaria berberina and P. coriifolia), was evaluated by incubation of samples and subsequent acetylene reduction assays conducted in the field and laboratory, in winter, spring and autumn of two consecutive years. Results showed that diazotrophic activity varied with the season of the year (lowest during the drier spring season), successional stage (highest in the maximal stage), and N-fixer community type (highest in symbiotic diazotrophs). In general, C+P+Mo limitation was documented for heterotrophic diazotrophs and P+Mo limitation for symbiotic diazotrophs. Limitation of diazotrophic activity was not associated with soil nutrient and C status in the chronosequence. Strong inhibition of diazotrophic activity by high N addition and by low moisture suggests that reductions in precipitation expected for south-central Chile under climate change, as well as increasing inputs of reactive N from atmospheric deposition due to increasing use of N fertilizers, may drastically alter the composition and functional role of cryptogamic assemblages in native forests.
KeywordsFree-living diazotrophs Symbiotic diazotrophs C+P+Mo limitation Southern temperate forests
We gratefully acknowledge the support of Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Fondecyt) Grant No. 1130353 and Grant IAI-CRN 3005. Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF) under the agreement 07/2012/IX allowed us to access Conguillío National Park, Araucarian Region, Chile. JJA, CP, and WS acknowledge the support of Grants PFB-23 (from Conicyt) and P05-002 (from Millennium Scientific Initiative) to the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Chile. We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers and associated editor who greatly helped to improve the original manuscript.
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