Advertisement

Biodegradation

, Volume 27, Issue 2–3, pp 145–154 | Cite as

The role of exogenous electron donors for accelerating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol biotransformation and mineralization

  • Ning Yan
  • Rongjie Li
  • Hua Xu
  • Ling Li
  • Lihui Yang
  • Yongming Zhang
  • Rui Liu
  • Bruce E. Rittmann
Original Paper

Abstract

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) is a biologically recalcitrant compound, but its biodegradation via reductive dechlorination can be accelerated by adding an exogenous electron donor. In this work, acetate and formate were evaluated for their ability to accelerate TCP reductive dechlorination, as well to accelerate mono-oxygenation of TCP’s reduction product, phenol. Acetate and formate accelerated TCP reductive dechlorination, and the impact was proportional to the number of electron equivalents released by oxidation of the donor: 8 e equivalents per mol for acetate, compared to 2 e eq per mol for formate. The acceleration phenomenon was similar for phenol mono-oxygenation, and this increased the rate of TCP mineralization. Compared to endogenous electron equivalents generated by phenol mineralization, the impact of exogenous electron donor was stronger on a per-equivalent basis.

Keywords

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Biodegradation Electron donors Reductive dechlorination Mono-oxygenation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (50978164); National High Technology Research and Development Program 863(2013AA06A305); Shanghai Gaofeng and Gaoyuan Project for University Academic Program Development; Special Fund of State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (13K09ESPCT); and the United States National Science Foundation (0651794).

Supplementary material

10532_2016_9762_MOESM1_ESM.doc (240 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 239 kb)

References

  1. Alder AC, Haggblom MM, Oppenheimer SR, Young LY (1993) Reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in anaerobic sediments. Environ Sci Technol 27:530–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2001) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edn. American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreoni V, Baggi G, Colombo M, Cavalaca L, Zangrossi M, Bernasconi S (1998) Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by a specialized organism and by indigenous soil microflora: bioaugmentation and self-remediability for soil restoration. Lett Appl Microbiol 27:86–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Annachhatre AP, Gheewala SH (1996) Biodegradation of chlorinated phenolic compounds. Biotechnol Adv 14:35–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bock C, Kroppenstedt RM, Schmidt U, Diekmann H (1996) Degradation of prochloraz and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by environmental bacterial strains. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 45:257–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Y, Zhan H, Chen Z, Fu S, Zhang X (2003) Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6- trichlorophenol. J Environ Sci 15:469–474Google Scholar
  7. Czaplicka M (2004) Sources and transformations of chlorophenols in the natural environment. Sci Total Environ 322:21–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Czaplicka M (2006) Photo-degradation of chlorophenols in the aqueous solution. J Hazard Mater 134:45–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dai Y, Li F, Ge F, Zhu F, Wu W, Yang X (2006) Mechanism of the enhanced degradation of pentachlorophenol by ultrasound in the presence of elemental iron. J Hazard Mater 137:1424–1429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Diez MC, Castillo G, Aguilar L, Vidal G, Mora ML (2002) Operational factors and nutrients effect on activated sludge treatment of Pinus radiata kraft mill wastewater. Bioresour Technol 83:131–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eker S, Kargi F (2009) Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) containing wastewater in a hybrid bioreactor system with effluent recycle. J Environ Manag 90:692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Field JA, Stams AJM, Kato M, Schraa G (1995) Enhanced biodegradation of aromatic pollutants in cocultures of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial consortia. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 67:47–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gallego A, Gemini V, Rossi S, Forunato MS, Planes E, Gomez CE, Korol SE (2009) Detoxification of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by an indigenous bacterial community. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 63:1073–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao J, Liu L, Liu X, Zhou H, Huang S, Wang Z (2008) Levels and spatial distribution of chlorophenols—2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in surface water of China. Chemosphere 71:1181–1187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaya UI, Abdullah AH, Hussein MZ, Zainal Z (2010) Photocatalytic removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from water exploiting commercial ZnO powder. Desalination 263:176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hameed BH (2007) Equilibrium and kinetics studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol adsorption onto activated clay. Colloids Surf A 307:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1999) IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  18. Kan E, Koh C, Lee K, Kang J (2015) Decomposition of aqueous chlorinated contaminants by UV irradiation with H2O2. Front Environ Sci Eng 9(3):429–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kohring G-W, Zhang X, Wiegel J (1989) Anaerobic dechlorination of 2,4-dechlorophenol in freshwater sediments in the presence of sulfate. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:2735–2737PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Krishnaiah D, Anisuzzaman SM, Bono A, Sarbatly R (2013) Adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) onto activated carbon. J King Saud Univ Sci 25:251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Louie TM, Webster CM, Xun L (2002) Genetic and biochemical characterization of a 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation pathway in Ralstonia eutropha JMP134. J Bacteriol 184:3492–3500CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Maddila S, Dasireddy VDBC, Oseghe OE, Jonnalagadda SB (2013) Ozone initiated dechlorination and degradation of trichlorophenol using Ce–Zr loaded metal oxides as catalysts. Appl Catal B 142–143:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marsolek MD, Torres CI, Hausner M, Rittmann BE (2008) Intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation in a photocatalytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:83–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Martin KJ, Nerenberg R (2012) The membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for water and wastewater treatment: principles, applications, and recent developments. Bioresour Technol 122:83–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. McFall SM, Abraham B, Narsolis CG, Chakrabarty AM (1997) A tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate regulating transcription of a chloroaromatic biodegradative pathway: fumarate-mediated repression of the clcABD operon. J Bacteriol 179:6729–6735PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Pamukoglu MY, Kargi F (2008) Biodegradation kinetics of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in batch culture. Enzyme Microbial Technol 43:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Podkościelny P, Dabrowski A, Marijuk OV (2003) Heterogeneity of active carbons in adsorption of phenol aqueous solutions. Appl Surf Sci 205:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rhee GY, Sokol RC, Bush B, Bethoney CM (1993) Long-term study of the anaerobic dechlorination of Aroclor 1254 with and without biphenyl enrichment. Environ Sci Technol 27:714–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Snyder CJP, Asghar M, Scharer JM, Legge RL (2006) Biodegradation kinetics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by an acclimated mixed microbial culture under aerobic conditions. Biodegradation 17:535–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sun F, Dong W, Shao M, Lv X, Li J, Peng L, Wang H (2013) Aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification in a membrane biofilm reactor: treatment performance and the effect of oxygen ventilation. Bioresour Technol 145:2–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tang Y, Zhang Y, Yan N, Liu R, Rittmann BE (2015) The role of electron donors generated from uv photolysis for accelerating pyridine biodegradation. Biotechnol Bioeng 112(9):1792–1800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang CC, Lee MC, Lu JC, Chuang SM, Huang ZC (2000) Biodegradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol in the presence of primary substrate by immobilized pure culture bacteria. Chemosphere 41:1873–1879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang J, Fu W, He X, Yang S, Zhu W (2014) Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol with functionalized carbon materials as catalysts: reaction mechanism and pathway. J Environ Sci 26:1741–1749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yang L, Zhang Y, Bai Q, Yan N, Xu H, Rittmann BE (2015) Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation. J Hazard Mater 287:252–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang B, Chen Z, Qiu Z, Jin M, Chen Z, Li J, Wang X, Wang J (2011) Dynamic and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria communities during sludge granulation in an anaerobic–aerobic sequencing batch reactor. Water Res 45:6207–6216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang Y, Sun X, Chen L, Rittmann BE (2012) Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation and mineralization. Biodegradation 23:189–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang C, Wang L, Yan N, Zhang Y, Liu R (2013) Air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor for realized simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 36:597–602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang Y, Chang L, Yan N, Tang Y, Liu R, Rittmann BE (2014) UV photolysis for accelerating pyridine biodegradation. Environ Sci Technol 48:649–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ning Yan
    • 1
  • Rongjie Li
    • 1
  • Hua Xu
    • 1
  • Ling Li
    • 1
  • Lihui Yang
    • 1
  • Yongming Zhang
    • 1
  • Rui Liu
    • 2
  • Bruce E. Rittmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental ScienceShanghai Normal UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Technology and EcologyYangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua UniversityJiaxingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign InstituteArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations