, Volume 27, Issue 2–3, pp 145–154 | Cite as

The role of exogenous electron donors for accelerating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol biotransformation and mineralization

  • Ning Yan
  • Rongjie Li
  • Hua Xu
  • Ling Li
  • Lihui Yang
  • Yongming Zhang
  • Rui Liu
  • Bruce E. Rittmann
Original Paper


2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) is a biologically recalcitrant compound, but its biodegradation via reductive dechlorination can be accelerated by adding an exogenous electron donor. In this work, acetate and formate were evaluated for their ability to accelerate TCP reductive dechlorination, as well to accelerate mono-oxygenation of TCP’s reduction product, phenol. Acetate and formate accelerated TCP reductive dechlorination, and the impact was proportional to the number of electron equivalents released by oxidation of the donor: 8 e equivalents per mol for acetate, compared to 2 e eq per mol for formate. The acceleration phenomenon was similar for phenol mono-oxygenation, and this increased the rate of TCP mineralization. Compared to endogenous electron equivalents generated by phenol mineralization, the impact of exogenous electron donor was stronger on a per-equivalent basis.


2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Biodegradation Electron donors Reductive dechlorination Mono-oxygenation 



The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (50978164); National High Technology Research and Development Program 863(2013AA06A305); Shanghai Gaofeng and Gaoyuan Project for University Academic Program Development; Special Fund of State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (13K09ESPCT); and the United States National Science Foundation (0651794).

Supplementary material

10532_2016_9762_MOESM1_ESM.doc (240 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 239 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ning Yan
    • 1
  • Rongjie Li
    • 1
  • Hua Xu
    • 1
  • Ling Li
    • 1
  • Lihui Yang
    • 1
  • Yongming Zhang
    • 1
  • Rui Liu
    • 2
  • Bruce E. Rittmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental ScienceShanghai Normal UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Technology and EcologyYangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua UniversityJiaxingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign InstituteArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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