Assessment of microbial communities associated with fermentative–methanogenic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20)
- 612 Downloads
A controlled field experiment was conducted to assess the potential for fermentative–methanogenic biostimulation (by ammonium-acetate injection) to enhance biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in groundwater contaminated with biodiesel B20 (20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel). Changes in microbial community structure were assessed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA analyses. BTEX and PAH removal began 0.7 year following the release, concomitantly with the increase in the relative abundance of Desulfitobacterium and Geobacter spp. (from 5 to 52.7 % and 15.8 to 37.3 % of total Bacteria 16S rRNA, respectively), which are known to anaerobically degrade hydrocarbons. The accumulation of anaerobic metabolites acetate and hydrogen that could hinder the thermodynamic feasibility of BTEX and PAH biotransformations under fermentative/methanogenic conditions was apparently alleviated by the growing predominance of Methanosarcina. This suggests the importance of microbial population shifts that enrich microorganisms capable of interacting syntrophically to enhance the feasibility of fermentative–methanogenic bioremediation of biodiesel blend releases.
KeywordsBiodegradation Biodiesel BTEX PAH Pyrosequencing Syntrophy
The authors thank PETROBRAS (Petróleo Brasileiro S/A) for the research financial support as well as CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Education Personnel) and CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) for providing scholarships.
- Bruce T, Martinez IB, Neto OM, Vicente ACP, Kruger RH, Thompson FL (2010) Bacterial community diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest soils. Soil Microbiol 60(4):840–849Google Scholar
- Coates JD, Ellis DJ, Gaw CV, Lovley DL (1999) Geothrix fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 49(4):1615–1622Google Scholar
- Galagan JE, Nusbaum C, Roy A, Endrizzi MG, MacDonalds P, Fitzhugh W, Calvo S, Engels R, Smirnov S, Atnoor D, Brown A, Allen N, Naylor J, Stange-Thomann N, Dearellano K, Johnson R, Linton L, Mcewan P, Mckernan K, Talamas J, Tirrell A, Ye WJ, Zimmer A, Barber RD, Cann I, Graham DE, Grahame DA, Guss AM, Hedderich R, Ingram-Smith C, Kuettner HC, Krzycki JA, Leigh JA, Li WX, Liu JF, Mukhopadhyay B, Reeve JN, Smith K, Springer TA, Umayam LA, White O, White RH, De Macario EC, Ferry JG, Jarrell KF, Jing H, Macario AJL, Paulsen I, Pritchett M, Sowers KR, Swanson RV, Zinder SH, Lander E, Metcalf WW, Birren B (2002) The genome of M. acetivorans reveals extensive metabolic and physiological diversity. Genome Res 12(4):532–542PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heidelberg JF, Seshadri R, Haveman SA, Hemme CL, Paulsen IT, Kolonay JF, Eisen JA, Ward N, Methe B, Brinkac LM, Daugherty SC, Deboy RT, Dodson RJ, Durkin AS, Madupu R, Nelson WC, Sullivan SA, Fouts D, Haft DH, Selengut J, Peterson JD, Davidsen TM, Zafar N, Zhou L, Radune D, Dimitrov G, Hance M, Tran K, Khouri H, Gill J, Utterback TR, Feldblyum TV, Wall JD, Voordouw G, Fraser CM (2004) The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Nat Biotechnol 22(5):554–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kunapuli U, Jahn MK, Lueders T, Geyer R, Hermann JH, Meckenstock RU (2010) Desulfitobacterium aromaticivorans sp. nov. and Gebacter toluenoxydans sp. nov., iron-reducing bacteria capable of anaerobic degradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 60(3):686–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lalman JD (2000) Anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1) and stearic (C18:0) acids and their inhibitory effects on acidogens, acetogens and methanogens. Thesis. University of TorontoGoogle Scholar
- Lovley DR, Giovannoni SJ, White DC, Champine JE, Phillips EJP, Gorby YA, Goodwin S (1993) Geobacter metallireducens gen. nov. sp. nov., a microorganism capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of iron and other metals. Arch Microbiol 159(4):336–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nazina TN, Tourova TP, Poltaraus AB, Novikova EV, Grigoryan AA, Ivanova AE, Lysenko AM, Petrunyaka VV, Osipov GA, Belyaev SS, Ivanov MV (2001) Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensissp nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermo-catenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51(2):433–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patureau D, Godon JJ, Bouchez T, Bernet N, Delgenes JP, Moletta R (1998) Microvirgula aerodenitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new gram-negative bacterium exhibiting co-respiration of oxygen and nitrogen oxides up to oxygen-saturated conditions. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 48(3):775–782Google Scholar
- van der Zaan BM, Saia FT, Stams AJM, Plugge CM, de Vos WM, Smidt H, Langenhoff AAM, Gerritse J (2012) Anaerobic benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions: Peptococcaceae as dominant benzene degraders and evidence for a syntrophic process. Environ Microbiol 14(5):1171–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ward NL, Challacombe JF, Janssen PH, Henrissat B, Coutinho PM, Wu M, Xie G, Haft DH, Sait M, Badger J, Barabote RD, Bradley B, Brettin TS, Brinkac LM, Bruce D, Creasy T, Daugherty TM, Deboy RT, Detter JC, Dodson RJ, Durkin AS, Ganapathy A, Dwinn-Giglio M, Han CS, Khouri H, Kiss H, Kothari SP, Madupu R, Nelson KE, Nelson WC, Paulsen I, Penn K, Ren Q, Rosovitz MJ, Selengut JD, Shrivastava S, Sullivan SA, Tapia R, Thompson LS, Watkins KL, Yang Q, Yu C, Zafar N, Zhou L, Kuske CR (2009) Three genomes from the phylum Acidobacteria provide insight into lifestyles of these microorganisms in soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(7):2046–2056PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar