Assessment of microbial communities associated with fermentative–methanogenic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20)
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A controlled field experiment was conducted to assess the potential for fermentative–methanogenic biostimulation (by ammonium-acetate injection) to enhance biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in groundwater contaminated with biodiesel B20 (20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel). Changes in microbial community structure were assessed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA analyses. BTEX and PAH removal began 0.7 year following the release, concomitantly with the increase in the relative abundance of Desulfitobacterium and Geobacter spp. (from 5 to 52.7 % and 15.8 to 37.3 % of total Bacteria 16S rRNA, respectively), which are known to anaerobically degrade hydrocarbons. The accumulation of anaerobic metabolites acetate and hydrogen that could hinder the thermodynamic feasibility of BTEX and PAH biotransformations under fermentative/methanogenic conditions was apparently alleviated by the growing predominance of Methanosarcina. This suggests the importance of microbial population shifts that enrich microorganisms capable of interacting syntrophically to enhance the feasibility of fermentative–methanogenic bioremediation of biodiesel blend releases.
KeywordsBiodegradation Biodiesel BTEX PAH Pyrosequencing Syntrophy
The authors thank PETROBRAS (Petróleo Brasileiro S/A) for the research financial support as well as CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Education Personnel) and CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) for providing scholarships.
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