Advertisement

Biodegradation

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 877–896 | Cite as

Dimensionless parameters to summarize the influence of microbial growth and inhibition on the bioremediation of groundwater contaminants

  • M. Mohamed
  • K. Hatfield
Original Paper

Abstract

Monod expressions are preferred over zero- and first-order decay expressions in modeling contaminants biotransformation in groundwater because they better represent complex conditions. However, the wide-range of values reported for Monod parameters suggests each case-study is unique. Such uniqueness restricts the usefulness of modeling, complicates an interpretation of natural attenuation and limits the utility of a bioattenuation assessment to a small number of similar cases. In this paper, four Monod-based dimensionless parameters are developed that summarize the effects of microbial growth and inhibition on groundwater contaminants. The four parameters represent the normalized effective microbial growth rate (η), the normalized critical contaminant/substrate concentration (S*), the critical contaminant/substrate inhibition factor (N), and the bioremediation efficacy (η*). These parameters enable contaminated site managers to assess natural attenuation or augmented bioremediation at multiple sites and then draw comparisons between disparate remediation activities, sites and target contaminants. Simulations results are presented that reveal the sensitivity of these dimensionless parameters to Monod parameters and varying electron donor/acceptor loads. These simulations also show the efficacy of attenuation (η*) varying over space and time. Results suggest electron donor/acceptor amendments maintained at relative concentrations S* between 0.5 and 1.5 produce the highest remediation efficiencies. Implementation of the developed parameters in a case study proves their usefulness.

Keywords

Modeling Bioremediation Monod kinetics Inhibition Dimensionless Groundwater 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partially funded by the Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP), U.S. Department of Energy: (Grant Number DE-FG02-08ER64585) and the Research Affairs at the UAE University (Grant number 08-01-7-11/09).

References

  1. Alvarez-Cohen L, Speitel GE (2001) Kinetics of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents. Biodegradation 12(2):105–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews JF (1968) A mathematical model for the continuous culture of microorganisms utilizing inhibitory substance. Biotechnol Bioeng 10:707–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atteia O, Guillot C (2007) Factors controlling BTEX and chlorinated solvents plume length under natural attenuation conditions. J Contam Hydrol 90(1–2):81–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey JE, Ollis DF (1986) Biochemical engineering fundamentals, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer RD, Maloszewski P, Zhang Y, Meckenstock RU, Griebler C (2008) Mixing-controlled biodegradation in a toluene plume—results from two-dimensional laboratory experiments. J Contam Hydrol 96(1–4):150–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baveye P, Valocchi A (1989) An evaluation of mathematical models of the transport of biologically reacting solutes in saturated soils and aquifers. Water Resour Res 25(6):1413–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bazin MJ, Saunders PT, Prosser JI (1976) Models of microbial interactions in the soil. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 4:463–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bedient PB, Rifai HS, Newell CJ (1994) Ground water contamination—transport and remediation. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  9. Bekins BA, Warren E, Godsy ME (1997) Comparing zero- and first-order approximations to the Monod model. In: Proceedings of the fourth international in situ and on-site bioremediation symposium, Battelle Press, New Orleans, LA, vol 5, pp 547–552Google Scholar
  10. Bell LSJ, Binning P (2002) A forward particle tracking Eulerian Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method for multicomponent reactive transport modelling of biodegradation. Dev Water Sci 47:703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borden RC, Bedient PB (1986) Transport of dissolved hydrocarbons influenced by oxygen-limited biodegradation: 1. Theoretical development. Water Resour Res 22(13):1973–1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borden RC, Lee MD, Wilson JT, Ward CH, Bedient PB (1984) Modeling the migration and biodegradation of hydrocarbons derived from a wood-creosoting process waste. In: Proceedings of the National Water Well Association, American Petroleum Institute conference on petroleum hydrocarbons and organic chemicals in groundwater: prevention, detection and restoration, Houston, TX, pp 130–143Google Scholar
  13. Bouwer EJ, Cobb GD (1987) Modeling of biological processes in the subsurface. Water Sci Technol 19:769–779Google Scholar
  14. Bouwer EJ, McCarty PL (1984) Modeling of trace organics biotransformation in the subsurface. Ground Water 22:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks SC, Carroll SL, Jardine PM (1999) Sustained bacterial reduction of Co(III) EDTA in the presence of competing geochemical oxidation during dynamic flow. Environ Sci Technol 33:3938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brun A, Engesgaard P (2002) Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: literature review and model development. J Hydrol 256(3–4):211–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brusseau M, Xie L, Li L (1999) Biodegradation during contaminant transport in porous media: 1. Mathematical analysis of controlling factors. J Contam Hydrol 37:269–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buchanan W, Roddicka F, Porter N (2008) Removal of VUV pre-treated natural organic matter by biologically activated carbon columns. Water Res 42(13):3335–3342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrera J, Jubany I, Carvallo L, Chamy R, Lafuente J (2004) Kinetic models for nitrification inhibition by ammonium and nitrite in a suspended and an immobilised biomass systems. Process Biochem 39(9):1159–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Celia MA, Kindred JS (1987) Numerical simulation of subsurface contaminant transport with multiple nutrient biodegradation. In: Proceedings of the international conference on the impact of physiochemistry on the study, design, and optimization of processes in natural porous media, Presses University de Nancy, Nancy, FranceGoogle Scholar
  21. Champagne P, Parker WJ, Van-Geel P (1999) Modeling cometabolic biodegradation of organic compounds in biofilms. Water Sci Technol 39(7):147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chang M-K, Voice TC, Criddle CS (1993) Kinetics of competitive inhibition and cometabolism in the biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene by two Pseudomonas isolates. Biotechnol Bioeng 41:1057–1065Google Scholar
  23. Chapelle FH, Lovely DR (1990) Rates of bacterial metabolish in deep coastal plain aquifers. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:1865–1874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen JM, Hao OJ (1996) Environmental factors and modeling in microbial chromium(VI) reduction. Water Environ Res 68(7):1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Christ JA, Abriola LM (2007) Modeling metabolic reductive dechlorination in dense non-aqueous phase liquid source-zones. Adv Water Resour 30(6–7):1547–1561Google Scholar
  26. Clement TP, Johnson CD, Sun YW, Klecka GM, Bartlett C (2000) Natural attenuation of chlorinated ethene compounds: model development and field-scale application at the Dover site. J Contam Hydrol 42(2–4):113–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Corapcioglu MY, Haridas A (1984) Transport and fate of microorganisms in porous media: a theoretical investigation. J Hydrol 72:149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Corapcioglu MY, Haridas A (1985) Microbial transport in soils and groundwater: a numerical model. Adv Water Resour 8:188–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Criddle CS (1993) The kinetics of cometabolism. Biotechnol Bioeng 41:1048–1056Google Scholar
  30. Curtis GP (2003) Comparison of approaches for simulating reactive solute transport involving organic degradation reactions by multiple terminal electron acceptors. Comput Geosci 29:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dette H, Melas VB, Pepelyshev A, Strigul N (2003) Efficient design of experiments in the Monod model. J R Stat Soc B 65(3):725–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Edwards VH (1970) The influence of high substrate concentration on microbial kinetics. Biotechnol Bioeng 12:679–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Forrest B, Arnell P (2001) Hydrocarbon delineation and pilot testing program at the Bu Hasa Liquids Recovery Plant Abu Dhabi report, United Arab Emirates. Matrix Solutions Inc. Report 01-47Google Scholar
  34. Goudar CT, Strevett KA (2000) Estimating in situ Monod biodegradation parameters using a novel explicit solution of a one-dimensional contaminant transport equation. Ground Water 38:894–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grady CPLJ, Daigger GT, Lim HC (1999) Biological wastewater treatment. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Guha H (2004) Biogeochemical influence on transport of chromium in manganese sediments: experimental and modeling approaches. J Contam Hydrol 70:1–36Google Scholar
  37. Hoover D (2007) Process for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and ethers in subsurface soil by introduction of a solid oxygen source by hydraulic fracturing. United States Patent 7,252,986Google Scholar
  38. Iliuta I, Larachi F (2005) Modeling simultaneous biological clogging and physical plugging in trickle-bed bioreactors for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng Sci 60(5):1477–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson JV, Edwards VH (1972) Kinetics of substrate inhibition of exponential yeast growth. Biotechnol Bioeng 17:943–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jia Y, Aagaard P, Breedveld GD (2007) Sorption of triazoles to soil and iron minerals. Chemosphere 67:250–258Google Scholar
  41. Johnson R, Pankow J, Bender D, Price C, Zogorski J (2000) Environ Sci Eng 2–9Google Scholar
  42. Khan FI, Husain T (2003) Evaluation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site for natural attenuation using ‘RBMNA’ methodology. Environ Model Softw 18(2):179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kim H, Peter RJ, Young LY (2004) Simulating biodegradation of toluene in sand column experiments at the macroscopic and pore-level scale for aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Adv Water Resour 27(4):335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Koussis AD, Pesmajogloua S, Syriopoulou D (2003) Modelling biodegradation of hydrocarbons in aquifers: when is the use of the instantaneous reaction approximation justified? J Contam Hydrol 60(3–4):287–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lai B, Shieh K (1997) Substrate inhibition kinetics in a fluidized bioparticle. Chem Eng J 65:117–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Långmark J, Storeya MV, Ashboltb NJ, Stenström TA (2004) Artificial groundwater treatment: biofilm activity and organic carbon removal performance. Water Res 38(3):740–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liang C, Chiang P (2007) Mathematical model of the non-steady-state adsorption and biodegradation capacities of BAC filters. J Hazard Mater 139(2):316–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liang C, Chiang P, Chang E (2007) Modeling the behaviors of adsorption and biodegradation in biological activated carbon filters. Water Res 41(15):3241–3250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. López-Fiuza J, Buys B, Mosquera-Corral A, Omil F, Méndez R (2002) Toxic effects exerted on methanogenic, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria by chemicals used in a milk analysis laboratory. Enzyme Microb Technol 31:976–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Luong JHJ (1987) Generalization of Monod kinetics for analysis of growth data with substrate inhibition. Biotechnol Bioeng 29:242–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. MacQuarrie KTB, Sudicky EA, Frind EO (1990) Simulation of biodegradable organic contaminants in groundwater: 1. Numerical formulation in principal directions. Water Resour Res 26(2):207–222Google Scholar
  52. Mayer KU, Benner SG, Frind EO, Thornton SF, Lerner DN (2001) Reactive transport modeling of processes controlling the distribution and natural attenuation of phenolic compounds in a deep sandstone aquifer. J Contam Hydrol 52(3–4):341–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McCuen RH, Surbeck CQ (2008) An alternative to specious linearization of environmental models. Water Res 42(15):4033–4040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McNab WW, Dooher BP, Rice DW, Kavanaugh MC, Johnson PC, Cullen SJ, Everett LG, Kastenberg WE (1997) Assessment of appropriate fuel hydrocarbon risk management strategies for George Air Force Base, Victorville, California using a risk based approach. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. UCRL-AR-125619Google Scholar
  55. Mohamed M, Hatfield K (2005) Modeling microbial-mediated reduction using the quasi-steady-state approximation. Chemosphere 59:1207–1217Google Scholar
  56. Mohamed M, Hatfield K, Hassan AE (2006) Monte Carlo evaluation of microbial-mediated contaminant reactions in heterogeneous aquifers. Adv Water Resour 29:1123–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mohamed M, Hatfield K, Perminova IV (2007) Evaluation of Monod kinetic parameters in the subsurface using moment analysis: theory and numerical testing. Adv Water Resour 30:2034–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mohamed M, Saleh N, Sherif M (2010a) Modeling in-situ benzene bioremediation in the contaminated Liwa Aquifer (UAE) using the slow-release oxygen source technique. Environ Earth Sci 61(7):1385–1399Google Scholar
  59. Mohamed M, Hatfield K, Hassan AE, Klammler H (2010b) Stochastic evaluation of subsurface contaminant discharges under physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneities. Adv Water Resour 33(7):801–812Google Scholar
  60. Mohamed M, Saleh N, Sherif M (2010c) Sensitivity of natural attenuation to variations in kinetic and transport parameters. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84(4):443–449Google Scholar
  61. Molz FJ, Widdowson MA, Benefield LD (1986) Simulation of microbial growth dynamics coupled to nutrient and oxygen transport in porous media. Water Resour Res 22(8):1207–1216Google Scholar
  62. Monod J (1949) The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu Rev Microbiol 3:371–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Murphy EM, Ginn TR (2000) Modeling microbial processes in porous media. Hydrogeol J 8:142–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Murphy EM, Ginn TR, Chilakapati A, Resch CT, Phillips JL, Wietsma TW, Spadoni CM (1997) The influence of physical heterogeneity on microbial degradation and distribution in porous media. Water Resour Res 33(5):1087–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Muslu Y (2000) A study on performance characterization of suspended growth systems. Water Air Soil Pollut 124:285–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Odencrantz JE, Valocchi AJ, Rittmann BE (1990) Modeling two-dimensional solute transport with different biodegradation kinetics. In: Proceedings of the petroleum hydrocarbons and organic chemicals in groundwater: prevention, detection and restoration, National Water Well Association, Houston, TX, pp 355–368Google Scholar
  67. Ohtake H, Fuji E, Toda K (1990) Bacterial reduction of hexavalent chromium: kinetic aspects of chromate reduction by Enterobacter cloacae HO1. Biocatalysis 4(2):227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Papagianni M, Boonpooh Y, Matty M, Kristiansen B (2007) Substrate inhibition kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch cultures operated at constant glucose and maltose concentrations levels. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 34:301–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Phanikumar MS, Hyndman DW (2003) Interactions between sorption and biodegradation: exploring bioavailability and pulsed nutrient injection efficiency. Water Resour Res 39(5):1122. doi: 10.1029/2002WR001761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Phanikumar MS, Hyndman DW, Wiggert DC, Dybas MJ, Witt ME, Criddle CS (2002) Simulation of microbial transport and carbon tetrachloride biodegradation in intermittently fed aquifer columns. Water Resour Res 38(4):1033. doi: 10.1029/2001WR000289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Phanikumar MS, Hyndman DW, Zhao X, Dybas MJ (2005) A three-dimensional model of microbial transport and biodegradation at the Schoolcraft, Michigan, site. Water Resour Res 41:5011. doi: 10.1029/2004WR003376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prommer H, Barry DA, Davis GB (1998) A one-dimensional reactive multi-component transport model for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. Environ Model Softw 14(2–3):213–223Google Scholar
  73. Prommer H, Barry DA, Davis GB (2002) Modelling of physical and reactive processes during biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume under transient groundwater flow conditions. J Contam Hydrol 59(1–2):113–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rashid M, Kaluarachchi J (1999) A simplified numerical algorithm for oxygen- and nitrate-based biodegradation of hydrocarbons using Monod expressions. J Contam Hydrol 40(1):53–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ribes J, Keesman K, Spanjers H (2004) Modeling anaerobic biomass growth kinetics with a substrate threshold concentration. Water Res 38(20):4502–4510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rifai HS, Bedient PB (1990) Comparison of biodegradation kinetics with an instantaneous reaction model for groundwater. Water Resour Res 26:637–645Google Scholar
  77. Rittmann BE, McCarty PL, Roberts PV (1980) Trace-organics biodegradation in aquifer recharge. Ground Water 18:236–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Saiers JE, Guha H, Jardine PM, Brooks S (2000) Development and evaluation of a mathematical model for the transport and oxidation–reduction of CoEDTA. Water Resour Res 36:3151–3165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salvage KM, Yeh GT (1997) Development and application of a numerical model of kinetics and equilibrium microbiological and geochemical reactions (BIOKEMOD). J Hydrol 209:27–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schafer W (2001) Predicting natural attenuation of xylene in groundwater using a numerical model. J Contam Hydrol 52:57–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schirmer M, Butler BJ, Roy JW, Frind EO, Barker (1999) A relative-least-squares technique to determine unique Monod kinetic parameters of BTEX compounds using batch experiments. J Contam Hydrol 37:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schirmer M, Molson JW, Frind EO, Barker JF (2000) Biodegradation modeling of a dissolved gasoline plume applying independent laboratory and field parameters. J Contam Hydrol 46(3–4):339–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Semprini L, Hopkins GD, Roberts PV, Grbic-Galic D, McCarty PL (1991) A field evaluation of in-situ biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes: Part 3. Studies of competitive inhibition. Gr Water 29:239–250Google Scholar
  84. Sheintuch M, Tartakovsky B, Narkis N, Rebhun M (1995) Substrate inhibition and multiple states in a continuous nitrification process. Water Res 29:953–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shen H, Wang YT (1994) Modeling hexavalent chromium reduction in E. coli 33456. Biotechnol Bioeng 43(4):293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Simkins S, Alexander M (1984) Models for mineralization kinetics with the variables of substrate concentration and population density. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:1299–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Simpson DR (2008) Biofilm processes in biologically active carbon water purification. Water Res 42(13):2839–2848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sims JL, Sims RC, Matthews JE (1989) Bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, UKGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith LH, McCarty PL (1997) Laboratory evaluation of a twostage treatment system for TCE cometabolism by a methaneoxidizing mixed culture. Biotechnol Bioeng 55:650–659Google Scholar
  90. Strigula N, Detteb H, Melasc VB (2009) A practical guide for optimal designs of experiments in the Monod model. Environ Model Softw 24(9):1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Surmacz-Gorska J, Gernaey K, Demuynck C, Vanrollehem P, Verstraete W (1996) Nitrification monitoring in activated sludge by oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurements. Water Res 30:1228–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tanyola A, Tuncel SA (1993) Effectiveness factor for spherically growing mixed culture in substrate inhibition media. Enzyme Microb Technol 15:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tebes-Stevens CL, Valocchi AJ (2000) Calculation of reaction parameter sensitivity coefficients in multicomponent subsurface transport models. Adv Water Resour 23(6):591–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tomson AFB, Jackson KJ (2000) Reactive transport in heterogeneous systems: an overview. In: Lichtner P et al (eds) Reactive transport in porous media, vol 36. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, pp 269–310Google Scholar
  95. Vainshtein M, Kuschk P, Mattusch J, Vatsourina A, Wiessner A (2003) Model experiments on the microbial removal of chromium from contaminated groundwater. Water Res 37(6):1401–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vavilin VA, Lokshina LY (1996) Modeling of volatile fatty acids degradation kinetics and evaluation of microorganism activity. Bioresour Technol 57:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vesper SJ, Murdoch LC, Hayes S, Davis-Hooverb WJ (1994) Solid oxygen source for bioremediation in subsurface soils. J Hazard Mater 36:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang Y, Shen H (1997) Modeling Cr(VI) reduction by pure bacterial cultures. Water Resour Res 31(4):727–732Google Scholar
  99. Watson JE, Gardner WR (1986) A mechanistic model of bacterial colony growth response to substrate supply. A paper presented at the Chapman conference on microbial processes in the transport, fate, and in situ treatment of subsurface contaminants, Snowbird, UTGoogle Scholar
  100. Weaver JW, Charbeneau RJ (2000) A screening approach to simulation of aquifer contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (BTEX and MTBE). National Exposure Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Georgia, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  101. Woodward D (1996) Potential for contamination of the Liwa aquifer by disposal of Brine in the Bu Hassa and Asab Fields, Abu DhabiGoogle Scholar
  102. Yamamoto K, Kato J, Yano T, Ohtake H (1993) Kinetics and modeling of hexavalent chromium reduction in Enterobacter cloacae. Biotechnol Bioeng 41(1):129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yoshida H, Yamamoto K, Yogo S, Murakami Y (2006) An analogue of matrix diffusion enhanced by biogenic redox reaction in fractured sedimentary rock. J Geochem Explor 90(1–2):134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yu J, Molstad L, Frostegård Å, Aagaard P, Breedveld GD, Bakken LR (2007) Kinetics of microbial growth and degradation of organic substrates in subsoil as affected by an inhibitor, benzotriazole: model based analyses of experimental results. Soil Biol Biochem 39(7):1597–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil and Environmental Engineering DepartmentUnited Arab Emirates UniversityAl-AinUAE
  2. 2.Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of EngineeringCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Civil and Coastal Engineering DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations