, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 167–178 | Cite as

Effects of soil amendment with different carbon sources and other factors on the bioremediation of an aged PAH-contaminated soil

  • Ying Teng
  • Yongming Luo
  • Lifeng Ping
  • Dexun Zou
  • Zhengao Li
  • Peter Christie
Original Paper


Carbon supplementation, soil moisture and soil aeration are believed to enhance in situ bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils by stimulating the growth of indigenous microorganisms. However, the effects of added carbon and nitrogen together with soil moisture and soil aeration on the dissipation of PAHs and on associated microbial counts have yet to be fully assessed. In this study the effects on bioremediation of carbon source, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, soil moisture and aeration on an aged PAH-contaminated agricultural soil were studied in microcosms over a 90-day period. Additions of starch, glucose and sodium succinate increased soil bacterial and fungal counts and accelerated the dissipation of phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil. Decreases in phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were effective in soil supplemented with glucose and sodium succinate (both 0.2 g C kg−1 dry soil) and starch (1.0 g C kg−1 dry soil). The bioremediation effect at a C/N ratio of 10:1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than at a C/N of either 25:1 or 40:1. Soil microbial counts and PAH dissipation were lower in the submerged soil but soil aeration increased bacterial and fungal counts, enhanced indigenous microbial metabolic activities, and accelerated the natural degradation of phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene. The results suggest that optimizing carbon source, C/N ratio, soil moisture and aeration conditions may be a feasible remediation strategy in certain PAH contaminated soils with large active microbial populations.


Phenanthrene Benzo(a)pyrene Indigenous microorganisms Carbon Soil moisture Soil aeration 



This work was supported by by grants from the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KZCW2-YW-404 and CXTD-Z2005-4), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2007AA061101) and the National Basic Research Program (973) of China (No. 2002CB410809).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Teng
    • 1
  • Yongming Luo
    • 1
  • Lifeng Ping
    • 1
  • Dexun Zou
    • 1
  • Zhengao Li
    • 1
  • Peter Christie
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.Agri-Environment BranchAgri-Food and Biosciences InstituteBelfastUK

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