Atrazine degradation by a simple consortium of Klebsiella sp. A1 and Comamonas sp. A2 in nitrogen enriched medium
- 443 Downloads
A simple consortium consisted of two members of Klebsiella sp. A1 and Comamonas sp. A2 was isolated from the sewage of a pesticide mill in China. One member of Klebsiella sp. A1 is a novel strain that could use atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The consortium showed high atrazine-mineralizing efficiency and about 83.3% of 5 g l−1 atrazine could be mineralized after 24 h degradation. Contrary to many other reported microorganisms, the consortium was insensitive to some nitrogenous fertilizers commonly used, not only in presence of 200 mg l−1 atrazine but also in 5 g l−1 atrazine mediums. After 24 h incubation, 200 mg l−1 atrazine was completely mineralized despite of the presence of urea, (NH4)2CO3 and (NH4)2HPO4 in the medium. Very minor influence was observed when NH4Cl was added as additional nitrogen source. Advantages of the simple consortium, high mineralizing efficiency and insensitivity to most of exogenous nitrogen sources, all suggested application potential of the consortium for the bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soils and waters.
KeywordsAtrazine Bioremediation Consortium Klebsiella Nitrogen insensitivity
This work was partially supported by the grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers: 30821005 and 20777051), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (grant numbers: 2007AA061101 and 2007AA10Z401) and National Basic Research Program of China (grant number: 2009CB118906).
- Bergey DH, Holt JG (1994) Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 9th edn. Williams & Wilkins, BaltmoreGoogle Scholar
- Piutti S, Semon E, Landry D, Hartmann A, Dousset S, Lichtfouse E, Topp E, Soulas G, Martin-Laurent F (2003) Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk and maize rhizosphere soil. FEMS Microbiol Lett 221:111–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring HarborGoogle Scholar
- Weightman A, Slater J (1988). The problem of xenobiotics and recalcitrance. In: Lynch J, Hobbie J (eds) Microorganisms in action: concepts and applications in microbial ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 322–347Google Scholar
- Yanzekontchou C, Gschwind N (1994) Mineralization of the herbicide atrazine as a carbon source by a Pseudomonas strain. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:4297–4302Google Scholar