The ACCEL Model for Accelerating the Detoxification Kinetics of Hydrocarbons Requiring Initial Monooxygenation Reactions
- 52 Downloads
The two-tank accelerator/aerator modification of activated sludge significantly increases the biodegradation of hydrocarbons requiring initial monooxygenation reactions, such as phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP). The small accelerator tank has a controlled low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration that can enrich the biomass in NADH + H+. It also has a very high specific growth rate (μ acc) that up-regulates the biomass’s content of the monooxygenase enzyme. Here, we develop and test the ACCEL model, which quantifies all key phenomena taking place when the accelerator/aerator system is used to enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons requiring initial monooxygenations. Monooxygenation kinetics follow a multiplicative relationship in which the organic substrates (phenol or DCP) and DO have separate Monod terms, while the biomass’s content of NADH + H+ has a first-order term. The monooxygenase enzyme has different affinities (K values) for phenol and DCP. The biomass’s NADH + H+ content is based on a proportioning of NAD(H) according to the relative rates of NADH + H+ sources and sinks. Biomass synthesis occurs simultaneously through utilization of acetate, phenol, and DCP, but each has its own true yield. The ACCEL model accurately simulates all trends for one-tank and two-tank experiments in which acetate, phenol, and DCP are biodegraded together. In particular, DCP removal is affected most by DOacc and the retention-time ratio, Θacc/Θtotal. Adding an accelerator tank dramatically increases DCP removal, and the best DCP removal occurs for 0.2 < DOacc < 0.5 mg/l and 0.08 < Θacc/Θtotal < 0.2. The rates of phenol and DCP utilization follow the multiplicative relationship with a maximum specific rate coefficient proportional to μacc. Finally, μ acc increases rapidly for Θacc/Θtotal < 0.25, acetate removal in the accelerator fuels the high μ acc, and the biomass’s NADH + H+ content increases very dramatically for DOacc < 0.25 mg/l.
Keywordsactivated sludge dichlorophenol monooxygenation nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phenolics specific growth rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bahder, TB 1995Mathematica for Scientists and EngineersAddison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Dahlen, EP, 1999. Accelerating Detoxification by Manipulating Intracellular Electron Carriers, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USAGoogle Scholar
- Gottschalk, G. 1986Bacterial Metabolism2Springer-Verlag, Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Grady, CPL,Jr., Daigger, GT, Lim, HC 1999Biological Wastewater Treatment2Marcel Dekker, Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kreyszig, E 1993Advanced Engineering Mathematics7John Wiley and Sons, Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Rittmann, BE, McCarty, PL 2001Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and ApplicationsMcGraw-Hill Book Co.New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Rittmann, BE, Seagren, E, Wrenn, BA, Valocchi, AJ, Ray, C, Raskin, L 1994In Situ Bioremediation2Noyes Publishers, Inc.Park Ridge, NJ, USAGoogle Scholar
- Wolfram, S 1994Mathematica, the Student BookAddison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar