Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 13–14, pp 3027–3044 | Cite as

Tourism and recreation: a common threat to IUCN red-listed vascular plants in Europe

  • Mark Ballantyne
  • Catherine Marina Pickering
Original Paper


Tourism and recreation are large industries employing millions of people and contribute over US$2.01 trillion to the global economy. Unfortunately they also have diverse and sometimes severe environmental impacts affecting many species, including those that are rare and threatened. To assess the extent to which these industries threaten vascular plants, we reviewed data in the IUCN Red List for 462 Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable European species. Tourism and recreation were listed as threatening 42 % (194 species) of these species from across 50 families, mostly herbs (70 %). They were listed as threatening plants in 9 of the 10 bioregions in Europe and in 25 of the 40 countries assessed. Popular tourism destinations such as the Canary Islands (41 species) and mainland Spain (40 species) had the greatest diversity of species listed as threatened by tourism and recreation. The most common of these threats were trampling (61 species), plant collection (59), the maintenance/construction of tourist infrastructure (43) and habitat degradation due to the urbanisation of tourist sites (13). Additional species assessments and more research on the impacts of tourism and recreation may add to these values. It is clear that these industries pose an important threatening process on plants in Europe based on the IUCN Red List data and hence deserve greater recognition in terms of research, conservation and management.


Endangered species Vegetation trampling Plant collecting Infrastructure impacts Mediterranean flora 



The authors would like to thank Clare Morrison, Julien Grignon and Daniela Guitart of Griffith University for their comments on this manuscript as well as Nicholas Turland of the Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dahlem for his review.

Supplementary material

10531_2013_569_MOESM1_ESM.doc (330 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 331 kb)


  1. Amelung B, Viner D (2006) Mediterranean tourism: exploring the future with the tourism climatic index. JOST 14(4):349–366Google Scholar
  2. Andrés-Aballán M, López-Serrano FR, García Morote FA, Del Cerro-Barja A (2006) Assessment of trampling simulation impacts on native vegetation in Mediterranean sclerophyllous forest. Environ Monit Assess 120:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2013) Angiosperm Phylogeny website Version 12. Accessed 23 July 2013
  4. Arévalo JR, Delgado JD, Otto R, Naranjo A, Salas M, Fernández-Palacios JM (2005) Distribution of alien vs. native plant species in roadside communities along an altitudinal gradient in Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 7(3):185–202Google Scholar
  5. Arteaga MA, Delgado JD, Otto R, Fernández-Palacios JM, Arévalo JR (2009) How do alien plants distribute along roads on oceanic islands? A case study in Tenerife, Canary Islands. Biol Invasions 11:1071–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballantyne M, Pickering CM (2012a) Ecotourism as a threatening process for wild orchids. J Ecotour 11(1):34–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballantyne M, Pickering CM (2012b) Impacts of trail networks on rare and threatened plant communities in Australia (extended abstract). In; Sixth international conference on monitoring and management of visitors in recreational and protected areas, Stockholm, Sweden, pp 364–365Google Scholar
  8. Bañares Baudet A, Carqué Álamo E, Marrero Gómez MV, Ojeda LE, Fernández López Á (2011) Myrica rivas-martinezii. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 23 July 2013
  9. Bazos I, Petrova A (2011) Species threats profile Lilium rhodopeum. IUCN web species profiles. Accessed 25 Sept 2012
  10. Benninger-Truax M, Vankat JL, Schaefer RL (1992) Trail corridors as habitat and conduits for movement of plant species in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. Landsc Ecol 6(4):269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernhardt-Römermann M, Gray A, Vanbergen AJ, Bergés L, Bohner A et al (2011) Functional traits and local environment predict vegetation responses to disturbance: a pan-European multi-site experiment. J Ecol 99:777–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bilz M (2011) Galium sudeticum. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 23 July 2013
  13. Bilz M, Kell SP, Maxted N, Lansdown RV (2011) European red list of vascular plants. European Union weblinks. Accessed 1 July 2012
  14. Bramwell D (1990) Conserving biodiversity in the Canary Islands. Ann Mo Bot Gard 77(1):28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bramwell B (2004) Mass tourism, diversification and sustainability in southern Europe’s coastal regions. In: Bramwell B (ed) Coastal mass tourism—diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Channel View Publications, Bristol, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  16. Buckley RC, Pickering CM, Warnken J (2000) Environmental management for alpine tourism and resorts in Australia. In: Godde PM, Price MF, Zimmerman FM (eds) Tourism and development in mountain regions. CABI Publishing, New York, pp 27–46Google Scholar
  17. Buckley RC, King N, Zubrinich T (2004) The role of tourism in spreading dieback disease in Australian vegetation. In: Buckley R (ed) Environmental impacts of ecotourism. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buckley RC, Castley JG, De Vasconcellos Pegas F, Mossaz AC, Steven R (2012) A population accounting approach to assess tourism contributions to conservation of IUCN-redlisted mammal species. PLoS ONE 7(9):e44134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B, Van Strien A, Scharlemann JPW et al (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cole DN (1995) Experimental trampling of vegetation (1)—relationship between trampling intensity and vegetation response. J Appl Ecol 32:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cole DN (2004) Impacts of hiking and camping on soils and vegetation: a review. In: Buckley R (ed) Environmental impacts of ecotourism. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 41–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Commission of the European Communities (2009) Composite report on the conservation status of habitat types and species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. EU Publishing, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  23. Convention on Biological Diversity (2008) Fourth national report of the implementation of CBD in Republic of Macedonia. Convention on Biological Diversity website. Accessed 24 Sept 2012
  24. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2012a) Global strategy for plant conservation—vision statement. Convention on Biological Diversity website. Accessed 10 May 2012
  25. Convention on Biological Diversity (2012b) Convention on biological diversity profiles. Convention on Biological Diversity website. Accessed 11 April 2012
  26. Cornelissen S (2005) Introduction: the global tourism system. In: Cornelissen S (ed) The global tourism system: governance, development and lessons from South Africa. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  27. Cronk QCB (1997) Islands: stability, diversity, conservation. Biodivers Conserv 6:477–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cuttelod A, García N, Abdul Malak D, Temple H, Katariya V (2008) The Mediterranean: a biodiversity hotspot under threat. In: Vié JC, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) The 2008 review of the IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN Publishing, Gland, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  29. Davenport J, Davenport JL (2006) The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: a review. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 67:280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Montmollin B, Strahm W (eds) (2005) The top 50 Mediterranean island plants—wild plants at the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them. CMS data page. Accessed 14 June 2012
  31. Delgado JD, Arroyo NL, Arévalo JR, Fernández-Palacios JM (2007) Edge effects of roads on temperature, light, canopy cover and canopy height in laurel and pine forests (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Landsc Urban Plan 81:328–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doda S (2012) The challenges of the present and future for a sustainable tourism in Albania. Mediterr J Soc Sci 3(1):627–638Google Scholar
  33. Euro+Med Plantbase (2012) Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity checklist. Euro+Med website. Accessed 29 March 2012
  34. European Commission (2012) Natura 2000: habitats directive sites according to biogeographical regions. European Commission website. Accessed 29 March 2012
  35. Fady B, Conord C (2010) Macroecological patterns of species and genetic diversity in vascular plants of the Mediterranean basin. Divers Distrib 16:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Falcucci A, Maiorano L, Boitani L (2007) Changes in land-use/land-cover patterns in Italy and their implications for biodiversity conservation. Landscape Ecol 22:617–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fenu G, Mattana E, Bacchetta G (2011) Distribution, status and conservation of a critically endangered, extremely narrow endemic: Lamyropsis microcephala (Asteraceae) in Sardinia. Oryx 45(2):180–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fenu G, Cogoni D, Ulian T, Bacchetta G (2013) The impact of human trampling on a threatened coastal Mediterranean plant: the case of Anchusa littorea Moris (Boraginaceae). Flora 208:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A, Kim SC, Crawford DJ (2000) Plant genetic diversity in the Canary Islands: a conservation perspective. Am J Bot 87(7):909–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garbajal R, Gómez Valverde MA, Navarro L, Rodríguez-Oubiña J, Serrano Pérez M (2011) Petrocoptis grandiflora. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 23 July 2013
  41. Garín-Muñoz T (2006) Inbound international tourism to the Canary Islands: a dynamic panel data model. Tour Manag 27:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Geneletti D, Dawa D (2009) Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: a study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. Environ Impact Assess Rev 29:229–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gil SM (2003) Tourism development in the Canary Islands. Ann Tour Res 30(3):744–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Godefroid S, Koedam N (2004) The impact of forest paths upon adjacent vegetation: effects of the path surfacing material on the species composition and soil compaction. Biol Conserv 119:405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Griffiths HI, Kryštufek B, Reed JM (2004) Balkan biodiversity: pattern and process in the European hotspot. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grunewald R (2006) Assessment of damages from recreational activities on coastal dunes of the Southern Baltic Sea. J Coastal Res 22(5):1145–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Halpenny EA, Caissie LT (2003) Volunteering on nature conservation projects: volunteer experience, attitudes and values. Tour Recreat Res 28(3):25–33Google Scholar
  48. Hamberg L, Lehvävirta S, Minna ML, Rita H, Kotze DJ (2008) The effects of habitat edges and trampling on understorey vegetation in urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. Appl Veg Sci 11(1):83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamilton A, Hamilton P (2006) Plant conservation—an ecosystem approach. Earthscan Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Hill W, Pickering CM (2009) Differences in resistance of three subtropical vegetation types to experimental trampling. J Environ Manage 90:1305–1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hortal J, Lobo JM, Jiménez-Valverde A (2007) Limitations of biodiversity databases: case study on seed-plant diversity in Tenerife, Canary Islands. Conserv Biol 21(3):853–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. IUCN Red List (2012) Species search. IUCN web species profiles search engine. Accessed 13 June 2012
  53. IUCN/SSC Orchid Specialist Group (1996) Orchids—status survey and conservation action plan. In: Hágsater E, Dumont V (eds) IUCN Publishing, GlandGoogle Scholar
  54. Jeanmonod D, Gamisans J (2007) Flora corsica. Edisud Publishing, Aix-en-Provence, p 1055Google Scholar
  55. Kell SP, Knüpfer H, Jury SL, Ford-Lloyd BV, Maxted N (2008) Crops and wild relatives of the Euro-Mediterranean region: making and using a conservation catalogue. In: Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Kell SP, Iriondo JM, Dulloo ME, Turok J (eds) Crop wild relative conservation and use. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 69–105Google Scholar
  56. Kelly CL, Pickering CM, Buckley RC (2003) Impacts of tourism on threatened plant taxa and communities in Australia. Ecol Manag Restor 4(1):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Király G, Stevanović V (2011) Species threats profile Dianthus diutinus. IUCN web species profiles. Accessed 25 Sept 2012
  58. Kutiel P, Eden E, Zhevelev Y (2000) Effect of experimental trampling and off-road motorcycle traffic on soil and vegetation of stabilised coastal dunes, Israel. Environ Conserv 27(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lansdown RV (2011) Isoetes boryana. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 23 July 2013
  60. Lavergne S, Thuiller W, Molina J, Debussche M (2005) Environmental and human factors influencing rare plant local occurrence, extinction and persistence: a 115-year study in the Mediterranean region. J Biogeogr 32:799–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lemauviel S, Rozé R (2003) Response of three plant communities to trampling in a sand dune system in Brittany (France). Environ Manage 31(2):227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leung YF, Marion JL (2000) Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: a state-of-knowledge review. USDA For Serv Proc 5:23–40Google Scholar
  63. Leyva C, Espejel I, Escofet A, Bullock SH (2006) Coastal landscape fragmentation by tourism development: impacts and conservation alternatives. Nat Areas J 26(2):117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liddle MJ (1997) Recreation ecology. Chapman and Hall Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Liddle MJ, Scorgie HRA (1980) The effects of recreation on freshwater plants and animals: a review. Biol Conserv 17:183–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Light MHS, MacConaill M (2007) Effects of trampling on a terrestrial orchid environment. Lankesteriana 7(1–2):294–298Google Scholar
  67. López-Pujol J, Orellana MR, Bosch M, Simon J, Blanché C (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on allozyme diversity and conservation status of the coastal sand dune plant Stachys maritima (Lamiaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Biol 5:504–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Luijten SH, Dierick A, Gerard J, Oostermeijer B, Raijmann LEL et al (2000) Population size, genetic variation and reproductive success in a rapidly declining, self-incompatible perennial (Arnica montana) in the Netherlands. Conserv Biol 14(6):1776–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marrero Gómez MV, Carqué Alamo E (2004) Euphorbia handiensis. In: Bañares A, Blanca G, Güemes J, Moreno JC, Ortiz S (eds) Atlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Vascular Amenazada de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Madrid, p 890Google Scholar
  70. Marrero-Gómez MV, Bañares-Baudet A, Carqué-Alamo E (2003) Plant resource conservation planning in protected natural areas: an example from the Canary Islands, Spain. Biol Conserv 113:399–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martín Cáceres K, Oval de la Rosa JP, Santos Guerra A, Mesa Coello R, Acevedo Rodríguez A (2011) Tolpis glabrescens. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 23 July 2013
  72. Mascarello C, Sacco E, Carasso V, Zappa E, Suffia G, Mariotti MG, Ruffoni B (2011) Evaluation of the seed germination of two protected species: Lilium pomponium and Lilium martagon. ISHS Acta Horticult 900:385–391Google Scholar
  73. Maschinski J, Frye R, Rutman S (1997) Demography and population viability of an endangered plant species before and after protection from trampling. Conserv Biol 11(4):990–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McCool SF, Moisey RN (2009) Tourism, recreation and sustainability: linking culture and the environment. CABI Publishing, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Médail F, Quézel P (1997) Hot-spots analysis for conservation of plant biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin. Ann Mo Bot Gard 84(1):112–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mesa Coello R, Oval de la Rosa JP, Acevedo Rodríguez A (2004) Barlia metlesicsiana (Teschner). In: Bañares A, Blanca G, Güemes J, Moreno JC, Ortiz S (eds) Atlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Vascular Amenazada de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Madrid, pp 624–625Google Scholar
  77. Monz CA, Cole DN, Leung YF, Marion JL (2010) Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience. Environ Manage 45:551–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mooney AH (1988) Lessons from the Mediterranean climate regions. In: Wilson EO (ed) Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, pp 156–165Google Scholar
  79. Morrison C, Simpkins C, Castley JG, Buckley RC (2012) Tourism and the conservation of critically endangered frogs. PLoS ONE 7(9):e43757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mosisch TD, Arthington AH (1998) Time impacts of power boating and water skiing on lakes and reservoirs. Lake Reserv Res Manag 3:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moxham C, Turner V (2011) The effect of fragmentation on the threatened plant community Coastal Moonah Woodland in Victoria, Australia. Urban Ecosyst 14(4):569–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Müllerová J, Vítková M, Vítek O (2011) The impacts of road and walking trails upon adjacent vegetation: effects of road building materials on species composition in a nutrient poor environment. Sci Total Environ 409(19):3839–3849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mus M, Rita Larrucea J (2006) Femeniasia balearica. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 2 Aug 2013
  84. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oldfield S (1984) Conservation of rare and endangered bulbs. Curtis’s Bot Mag 1:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Page S, Connell J (2009) Introduction to tourism: themes, concepts and issues. In: Page S, Connell J (eds) Tourism: a modern synthesis, 3rd edn. Cengage Learning EMEA Publishing, Andover, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  87. Peñas J, Benito B, Lorite J, Ballesteros M, Cañadas EM, Martinez-Ortega M (2011) Habitat fragmentation in arid zones: a case study of Linaria nigricans under land use changes (SE Spain). Environ Manage 48:168–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pérez-García FJ, Medina-Cazorla JM, Martínez-Hernández F, Garrido-Becerra JA, Mendoza-Fernández AJ, Salmerón-Sánchez E, Mota JF (2012) Iberian Baetic endemic flora and the implications for a conservation policy. Ann Bot Fennici 49:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pickering CM, Hill W (2007a) Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia. J Environ Manage 85:791–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pickering CM, Hill W (2007b) Impacts of recreation and tourism on plants in protected areas in Australia. CRC for Tourism Research website. Accessed 13 June 2012
  91. Pickering CM, Mount A (2010) Do tourists disperse weed seed? A global review of unintentional human-mediated terrestrial seed dispersal on clothing, vehicles and horses. J Sustain Tour 18(2):239–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pickering CM, Hill W, Newsome D, Leung YF (2010) Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America. J Environ Manage 91:551–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pickering CM, Rossi S, Barros A (2011) Assessing the impacts of mountain biking and hiking on subalpine grassland in Australia using an experimental protocol. J Environ Manage 92:3049–3057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Planta Europa (2008) The European strategy for plant conservation 2008-2014: a sustainable future for Europe. Plantlife webpage. Accessed 12 July 2012
  95. Raijmann LEL, Van Leeuwen NC, Kersten R, Oostermeijer JGB, Den Nijs HCM, Menken SBJ (2006) Genetic variation and outcrossing rate in relation to population size in Gentiana pneumonanthe. Conserv Biol 8(4):1014–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rickard CA, McLachlan A, Kerley GIH (1994) The effects of vehicular and pedestrian traffic on dune vegetation in South Africa. Ocean Coast Manag 23:225–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rossi G, Parolo G, Ulian T (2009) Human trampling as a threat factor for the conservation of peripheral plant populations. Plant Biosyst 143(1):104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rusterholz HP, Miller SW, Baur B (2004) Effects of rock climbing on plant communities on exposed limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains. Appl Veg Sci 7(1):35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sánchez-Gómez P, Stevens D, Fennane M, Gardner M, Thomas P (2012) Threat profile for Tetraclinis articulata. IUCN web species profiles. Accessed 19 Sept 2012
  100. Secretariat on the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009) The convention on biological diversity plant Conservation report: a review of progress in implementing the global strategy of plant conservation (GSPC). Convention on Biological Diversity website. Accessed 14 June 2012
  101. Shackley M (2004) Managing the cedars of Lebanon: botanical garden or living forests? Curr Issues Tour 7(4–5):417–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sharrock S, Jones M (2009) Conserving Europe’s threatened plants—progress towards target 8 of the global strategy for plant conservation. Botanic Gardens Conservation International website. Accessed 29 June 2012
  103. Steven R, Pickering CM, Castley JG (2011) A review of the impacts of nature based recreation on birds. J Environ Manage 92(10):2287–2294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. UNWTO—United Nations World Tourism Organisation (2012) World Tourism Organisation tourism highlights 2012 edition. UNWTO website. Accessed 17 Sept 2012
  105. Van der Duim R, Caalders J (2002) Biodiversity and tourism: impacts and interventions. Ann Tour Res 29(3):743–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vermaat JE, de Bruyne RJ (1993) Factors limiting the distribution of submerged water plants in the lowland River Vecht (The Netherlands). Freshw Biol 30(1):147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Villar L, Goñi Martínez D, Ferrández J (2011) Petrocoptis pseudoviscosa. In: IUCN 2013 red list of threatened species, version 2013.1. IUCN Red List website. Accessed 23 July 2013
  108. Walker KJ, Stevens PA, Stevens DP, Owen JO, Manchester SJ, Pywell RF (2004) The restoration and re-creation of species-rich lowland grassland on land formerly managed for intensive agriculture in the UK. Biol Conserv 19:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Walter KS, Gillett HJ (1997) The 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants. IUCN Publishing, GlandGoogle Scholar
  110. WTTC—World Travel and Tourism Council (2012) Travel & tourism: economic impact 2012 report. WTTC website. Accessed 25 June 2012

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment, Environmental Futures CentreGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

Personalised recommendations