Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 895–911 | Cite as

Developing MPA performance indicators with local stakeholders’ input in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, Canada

  • Nadine HeckEmail author
  • Philip Dearden
  • Adrian McDonald
  • Steve Carver
Original Paper


Along with an increase in the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs), the need arises to assess if designated MPAs are achieving their goals and objectives. A first step in this process is the identification of MPA performance indicators against which to evaluate MPA management. This study investigates the development of MPA performance indicators using an in situ approach by including diverse stakeholder groups in the process. The results show that local stakeholders identify a range of MPA performance indicators in all stages of the management cycle and in diverse MPA indicators categories. Statistical analysis reveals that multiple groups identify distinct performance indicators. Fishermen groups primarily mention governance performance indicators in the planning and output stage. Other groups most often cite biophysical and social outcome performance indicators. The findings demonstrate distinct management expectations towards MPA performance among included stakeholder groups. The study also shows that the integration of multiple groups is necessary for the identification of MPA performance indicators as the groups identify distinct performance indicators.


MPA evaluation Performance indicators Canada Stakeholders 



The study is part of a PhD underway at the University of Leeds (UK) in collaboration with the University of Victoria (CA). Financial assistance was provided by the University of Leeds Research Scholarship, the Canadian Studies Centre, at the University of Leeds postgraduate award, the British Association for Canadian Studies travel award and fieldwork funding provided by the Ocean Management Research Network, Canada, through the MPA Working Group based at the University of Victoria.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine Heck
    • 1
    Email author
  • Philip Dearden
    • 2
  • Adrian McDonald
    • 1
  • Steve Carver
    • 1
  1. 1.School of GeographyUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

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