Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 18, Issue 10, pp 2679–2703 | Cite as

Bees, farmers, tourists and hunters: conflict dynamics around Western Tanzania protected areas

Original Paper


Following important donor funding in Tanzania since the 1990s to support community based natural resource management, several cooperation agencies have implemented projects aiming at developing innovative conservation strategies combining protected and sustainable use areas. Based on data gathered in the Katavi Rukwa Lukwati and Ugalla core areas of Western Tanzania, this paper compares and analyses how projects developed their strategy and objectives to address conflicts between local population and conservation agents, and how this led to changes in conservation practices. The projects managed to achieve their objectives in conservation and poverty reduction at various degrees. Enhanced conflict resolution capacity involving private stakeholders, conservation agents and local communities, as well as improved collaboration between projects, helped to solve part of the conflicts. This was the case with the negotiation of rights of access for beekeepers to Rukwa game reserve. However, enduring sector based approaches continue to hinder opportunities for developing multiple use approaches. Contrasted results of the projects can be explained by factors inherent to projects’ planning and management, but also by factors that are beyond projects’ influence such as the historical and contemporary context in terms of governance of natural resources and more globally, of power relationships between the state, private organisations and the communities.


Community based natural resource management Decentralisation Donor projects Conflicts Tanzania 



Association pour le Développement des Aires Protégées, Swiss internat. NGO


Community based natural resource management


Community based organisation


Inyonga beekeeping development support programme


Kreditanstalt für wiederaufbau - German development bank


Katavi Rukwa conservation and development programme


Sokoine university of agriculture


Tanzania national parks


Tanzania wildlife research institute


University of applied sciences of Western Switzerland


Ugalla community landscape conservation programme



We thank COSTECH and TAWIRI for permissions at the national level, District and division staffs for their support at local level, the villagers that patiently accepted to answer to our questions. We thank the SDC-KFPE Program and the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland for funding. We thank Fred Nelson, Daniel Brockington, Andrea Finger-Stich, Gilles Forster, Russel Taylor, Emmanuel Torquebiau and an anonymous reviewer for comments on the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Natural Resource Management DepartmentUniversity of Applied Sciences of Western SwitzerlandLullier, Jussy, GenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Association for the Development of Protected AreasGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Tanzanian NGO “Friends of Katavi”MunichGermany

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