Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 1397–1407 | Cite as

How well do herbarium data predict the locationof present populations? A test using Echinacea species in Missouri

  • Wendy L. Applequist
  • Daniel J. Mcglinn
  • Michele Miller
  • Quinn G. Long
  • James S. Miller


The four native Missouri taxa of Echinacea were used as a model to test the predictive value of herbarium data with regard to present-day distribution. Specimens with label data considered potentially adequate to relocate the population were databased and the sites in question were visited. Most of the historical populations were not relocated, although a greater percentage of those collected post-1980 were found to still exist. Time since collection significantly affected the probability of relocation of E. purpurea and E. pallida var. pallida, the two native taxa commonly harvested for medicinal products. The collection rate for E. pallida var. pallida remained high over time. However, the collection rate for E. purpurea has been much reduced in recent decades. Few of the historical populations were relocated, and located populations on unprotected public land were very small, perhaps indicating that habitat loss or human activity is causing a decline in Missouri populations of E. purpurea.


Conservation Echinacea Herbarium specimens Historical populations Missouri 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy L. Applequist
    • 1
  • Daniel J. Mcglinn
    • 2
  • Michele Miller
    • 3
    • 4
  • Quinn G. Long
    • 3
    • 5
  • James S. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.William L. Brown Center for Plant Genetic ResourcesMissouri Botanical GardenSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Botany DepartmentOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  3. 3.Division of Biological SciencesUniversity of Missouri – ColumbiaColumbiaUSA
  4. 4.Kansas Migrant Education ProgramGardnerUSA
  5. 5.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyThe University of KansasLawrenceUSA

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