Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 743–756 | Cite as

Ungulate relative abundance in hunted and non-hunted sites in Calakmul Forest (Southern Mexico)

  • Rafael Reyna-Hurtado
  • George W. Tanner
Article

Abstract

The relative abundance of an ungulate community in hunted and non-hunted areas was studied in Calakmul, a tropical forest in southern Mexico that includes a 723,815 ha Biosphere Reserve where no hunting is allowed and communal lands where hunting activity does take place. Tapir, white-lipped peccary (WLP), collared peccary, two species of brocket deer and white-tailed deer were the focal species. Relative abundance of ungulates was obtained by counting tracks along transects in three hunted sites and in the southern core area of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, a enforced part of the protected area of 350,000 ha where no hunting has been-permitted since 1989. A total of 1708 ungulates tracks were obtained along 206.1 km (n = 90 transects) divided among the four sites. Relative abundance of the species was estimated from the track encounter rate (TER) calculated as the number of tracks per species encountered per km of transect. No significant differences in brocket deer and collared peccary TER was found among hunted and non-hunted areas. TER for WLP was significant higher in the non-hunted area, while TER for white-tailed deer and tapir was significant higher in hunted sites. Hunting activity affected the ungulate species in Calakmul differently. Brocket deer, white-tailed deer and collared peccary are more resistant species toward the hunting pressure than the WLP, who needs an immediate protection plan throughout Calakmul. Hunting areas are important habitat refuges for tapir populations and they should be protected in these areas.

Keywords

Brocket deer Calakmul Collared peccary Hunting Relative abundance Tapir Transects Ungulate White-lipped peccary White-tailed deer 

Resumen

La abundancia relativa de seis especies de ungulados fue obtenida a través de conteos de huellas a lo largo de transectos en tres sitios con cacería y en la parte sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Calakmul, una área de alrededor de 350,000 ha donde la cacería ha sido prohibida desde 1989. Tapir, pecarí de labios blancos, pecarí de collar, dos especies de venados temazates y el venado cola blanca fueron las especies estudiadas. Un total de 1708 huellas de ungulados fueron obtenidos a lo largo de 206.1 km (90 transectos) divididos en los cuatro sitios. La abundancia relativa de las especies fue estimada por medio de la tasa de encuentro de huellas (TEH) calculado como el número de huellas encontradas por km de transecto recorrido. La TEH de los venados temazates y el pecarí de collar fue similar entre las áreas con cacería y sin cacería. La TEH para el pecarí de labios blancos fue significativamente mayor en el área sin cacería, mientras que la TEH del venado cola blanca y el tapir fueron significativamente mayor en los sitios con cacería. La actividad de cacería afecta a las especies de ungulados diferente en la región de Calakmul. Los venados temazates, el venado cola blanca y el pecarí de collar están resistiendo mejor la presión de cacería que el pecarí de labios blancos quien necesita un plan inmediato de protección en toda el área. La evidencia sugiere que las áreas con cacería en este estudio son importantes para las poblaciones de tapir, y que se debe prestar atención a su protección en dichas áreas.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. M.S. Alvard, J.G. Robinson, K.H. Redford and H. Kaplan, The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the neotropics. Conserv. Biol. 4 (1996) 977-982Google Scholar
  2. M. Alvarez del Toro, Los mamíferos de Chiapas. Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, México: Gobierno del Estado (1991).Google Scholar
  3. M. Aranda, Rastros de los mamíferos silvestres de México. Ediciones Maccio, Xalapa Veracruz, México: INIREB (1981).Google Scholar
  4. Baur E.H. 1998. Informe final: Estudio de la cacería de subsistencia en la concesión forestal de CarmelitaSan Andres, Peten, Informe preliminar. Pro-Peten, Conservation International, Peten, Guatemala.Google Scholar
  5. R. Bodmer, Responses of ungulates to seasonal inundations in the Amazon floodplain. J. Trop. Ecol. 6 (1990) 191-201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. R. Bodmer, J.F. Eisenberg and K.H. Redford, Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals. Conserv. Biol. 2 (1997) 460-466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. E. Carrillo, G. Wong and A.D. Cuaron, Monitoring mammal populations in Costa Rican protected areas under different hunting restrictions. Conserv. Biol. 14 (2000) 1580-1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. L.E. Cullen, R. Bodmer and C. Valadares-Padua, Ecological consequences of hunting in Atlantic forest patches, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Orix 35 (2001) 137-144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dirzo R. and Miranda A. 1991. Altered patterns of herbivory and diversity in the forest understory: a case study of the possible consequences of contemporary defaunation. In: Lewinsonn P.W., Wilson G. and Woodruff W. (eds), Plant–Animal Interactions. Evolutionary Ecology in Tropical and Temperate Regions. John Wiley and Sons Inc, pp. 273–287.Google Scholar
  10. L.H. Emmons and F. Feer, Neotropical Rainforest Mammals. A Field Guide. Chicago, IL, USA: The University of Chicago Press (1990).Google Scholar
  11. Ericson J. 1997. Regional assessment Calakmul population-environment initiative. Preliminary report. Pronatura Peninsula de Yucatan, México. WWF and University of Michigan, USA.Google Scholar
  12. A. Escamilla, M. Sanvicente, M. Sosa and C. Galindo-Leal, Habitat mosaic, wildlife availability, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, México. Conserv. Biol. 14 (2000) 1592-1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. C. Foester and C. Vaughan, Home rangehabitat use and activity of Baird's Tapir in Costa Rica. Biotropica 34 (2002) 423-437Google Scholar
  14. Fragoso J.M.V. 1991. Effects of hunting on tapirs in Belize. In: Robinson J.G. and Redford K. (eds), Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation, The University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  15. J.M.V. Fragoso, Desapariciones locales del baquiro labiado (Tayassu pecari) en la Amazonía: migración, sobre-cosecha o epidemia?. In: T.G. Fang, R. Bodmer, R. Aquinoy and M. Valqui (eds.) Manejo de fauna silvestre en la Amazonía. La Paz, Bolivia: UNAP, University of Florida UNDP/GEF e Instituto de Ecologia (1997) pp. 309-312Google Scholar
  16. J.M.V. Fragoso, Home range and movement patterns of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) herds in the Northern Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica 30 (1998) 458-469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fragoso J.M.V., Silvius K.M. and Villa-Lobos M. 2000. Wildlife management at the Rio das Mortes Xavante Reserve, MY, Brazil: integrating indigenous culture and scientific method for conservation. World wildlife Fund-Brazil, Brasilia, Brazil.Google Scholar
  18. K. Hill, J. Padwe, C. Bejyvagi, A. Bepurangi, F. Jakugi, R. Tykuarangi and T. Tykuarangi, Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu Reserve, Paraguay. Conserv. Biol. 6 (1997) 1339-1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. J.P. Jorgenson, Wildlife conservation and game harvest by Maya hunters in Quintana Roo, México. In: J.G. Robinson and E.L. Bennett (eds.) Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forest. New York, USA: Columbia University Press (2000) pp. 251-266Google Scholar
  20. R.A. Kiltie and J. Terborgh, Observations on the behavior of rain forest peccaries in Perú: Why do white-lipped peccaries form herds?. Z. Tierpsychol. 62 (1983) 241-255Google Scholar
  21. A.S. Leopold, Fauna Silvestre de México. México D.F. México: Instituto Mexicano de Recursos Naturales Renovables (1959).Google Scholar
  22. E. Méndez, Mexico and Central America. In: L.K. Hals (ed.) White-Tailed Deer Ecology and Management. Harrisburg, PA, USA: Stackpole Books (1984) pp. 513-524Google Scholar
  23. E.J. Naranjo, Abundancia y use de habitat del tapir (Tapirtus bairdii) en un bosque tropical húmedo de Costa Rica. Vida Silvestre Neotrop. 4 (1995) 20-31Google Scholar
  24. E.J. Naranjo, Population ecology and conservation of ungulates in the Lacandon forest, México. Gainesville, Fl, USA: The University of Florida (2002).Google Scholar
  25. E.J. Naranjo and J.E. Bolaños, Correlación entre índices de abundancia y densidades poblacionales de mamíferos en la selva Lacandona, México. In: P. Sanchez, A. Morales and H.F. Lopez (eds.) Proceedings of the fifth International Congress an Wildlife Management in Amazonia and Latin America. Bogota Colombia: Fundacion Natura (2001) pp. 124Google Scholar
  26. C.A. Peres, Population status of white-lipped Tayassu pecari and collared peccaries T. tajacu in hunted and unhunted Amazonian forest. Biol. Conserv. 77 (1996) 115-123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. C.A. Peres, Evaluating the impact and sustainability of subsistence hunting at multiple Amazonian forest sites. In: J.G. Robinson and E.L. Bennett (eds.) Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forest. New York, USA: Columbia University Press (2000) pp. 31-56Google Scholar
  28. Quijano E.H. 2001. Ecología, aprovechamiento y conservación de la fauna silvestre en Tres Reyes, Quintana Roo. Tesis de Maestría, ECOSUR (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur), Chetumal, Q. RooMéxico.Google Scholar
  29. Reyna-Hurtado R. 2002. Hunting effects on the ungulates species in Calakmul Forest, Mexico. Master Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl, USA.Google Scholar
  30. R. Reyna-Hurtado, M. Sanvicente, S. Calmé, G. Escalona and J.A. Vargas, Estudio de fauna silvestre en la comunidad de Xbonil, Calakmul, Campeche. Camp. México: SEMARNAP. ECOSUR. Campeche (1999).Google Scholar
  31. Robinson J.G. and Redford K. (eds) 1991. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. J.G. Robinson and E.L. Bennett, Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forest. New York, USA: Columbia University Press (2000).Google Scholar
  33. L.L. Rue, The Deer of North America. New York, USA: Times Mirror Magazines Inc. Crown (1978).Google Scholar
  34. SEMARNAP 2000. Programa de manejo de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Calakmul, México. Instituto Nacional de Ecología, México D.F., México.Google Scholar
  35. R.R. Sokal and F.J. Rohlf, Biometry. New York, USA: W.H. Freeman and Co. (1995).Google Scholar
  36. L.K. Sowls, Javelinas and the Other Peccaries: Their Biology, Management and Use. College Station, TX, USA: Texas A and M University Press (1997).Google Scholar
  37. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Graduate Pack Version 8.0 for Windows. Chicago, Illinois, USA: SPSS Inc. (1997).Google Scholar
  38. A.Mc Stearman, Neotropical hunters and their neighbors: Sirionó, Chimane and Yuquí hunting on the Bolivian frontier. In: K. Redford and C. Padoch (eds.) Conservation of Neotropical Forest (Working from Traditional Use). New York, USA: Columbia University Press (1992) pp. 108-128Google Scholar
  39. M.W. Tobler, Habitat Use and Diet of Baird's Tapirs (Tapirus bairdii) in a Montane Cloud Forest of the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Biotropica 34 (2002) 468-474Google Scholar
  40. W.R. Towsend, The sustainability of subsistence hunting by the Siriono Indians of Bolivia. In: J.G. Robinson and E.L. Bennett (eds.) Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forest. New York, USA: Columbia University Press (2000) pp. 267-281Google Scholar
  41. E. Ucan, L.M. Ortega, J.J. Ortiz, J. Tun and S. Flores, Vegetación y Flora. In: W.J. Folang, M.C. Sánchez and J.M. García (eds.) Naturaleza y cultura en Calakmul, Campeche. México: Universidad Autónoma de Campeche. Centro de investigaciones históricas y sociales. Campeche Camp (1999) pp. 59-64Google Scholar
  42. W.T. Vickers, Hunting yields and game composition over ten years in an Amazon Indian territory. In: J.G. Robinson and K. Redford (eds.) Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. USA: The University of Chicago Press (1991) pp. Google Scholar
  43. Weber M. 2000. Effects of hunting on tropical deer populations in Southeastern México. MSc Thesis, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  44. B.K. Williams, J.D. Nichols and M.J. Conroy, Analysis and Management of Animal Populations. San Diego, USA: Academic Press (2002).Google Scholar
  45. K.D. Williams, The Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Northwestern Costa Rica. USA: Michigan State University (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Wildlife Ecology and ConservationUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations