Advertisement

Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 1339–1351 | Cite as

Effects of Fragmentation of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests on Genetic Diversity of Ardisia Crenata var. Bicolor (Myrsinaceae)

  • Ai-Lian Zhao
  • Xiao-Yong Chen
  • Xin Zhang
  • Dong Zhang
Article

Abstract

Due to the long generation times and high densities, dominant tree species usually did not respond consistently with theoretical predictions to the recent fragmentation. Genetic structures of shrubs and herbs, especially those with low densities, may be more sensitive to forest fragmentation. We studied the genetic structure of a self-compatible subshrub, Ardisia crenata var. bicolor (Myrsinaceae) in a recently fragmented landscape. Ten RAPD primers used for analysis generated a total of 76 bands. We found that A. c. var. bicolor had relatively low species-level (P95 = 63.2%; H = 0.106; Shannon diversity index (SI) = 0.246) and within-population diversity (P95 = 5.3−46.1%; H = 0.026−0.175; SI = 0.032−0.253), and significant population differentiation (GST = 0.445). Significantly positive relationships were found between measures of diversity (P95, H and SI) and the log of estimated population size. No significant relationship was observed between Nei's genetic distance and spatial distance of pairwise populations, indicating no isolation-by-distance. Given most species of forests are shrubs and herbs with short generation times, our observation indicated that distinct genetic consequences of recent fragmentation may be expected for quite a number of plant species.

Keywords

Ardisia crenata var. bicolor Differentiation Forest fragmentation Genetic diversity Population size RAPD markers 

References

  1. Bacles, C.F.E., Lowe, A.J., Ennos, R.A. 2004Genetic effects of chronic habitat fragmentation on tree species: the case of Sorbus aucuparia in a deforested Scottish landscapeMolecular Ecology13573584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buchert, G.P., Rajora, O.P., Hood, J.V., Dancik, B.P. 1997Effects of harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine in OntarioCanadaConservation Biology11747758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardoso, M.A., Provan, J., Powell, W., Ferreira, P.C.G., Oliveira, D.E. 1998High genetic differentiation among remnant populations of the endangered Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)Molecular Ecology7601608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cassel, A., Tammaru, T. 2003Allozyme variability in central, peripheral and isolated populations of the scarce heath (Coenonympha hero: LepidopteraNymphalidae); implications for conservationConservation Genetics48393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, X.Y. 2000Effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic structure of plant populations and implications for the biodiversity conservationActa Ecologica Sinica20884892Google Scholar
  6. Chen, X.Y., Li, N., Shen, L. 2001The mating system of Ardisia crenata var. bicolor (Myrsinaceae), a subtropical understory shrubin Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang ProvinceActa Phytoecologica Sinica25161165Google Scholar
  7. Chen, X.Y., Song, Y.C. 1998Microgeographic differentiation in a Cyclobalanopsis glauca poplation in western Huangshan, Anhui ProvinceJournal of Plant Resources Environment71014Google Scholar
  8. Chen, X.Y., Wang, X.H., Song, Y.C. 1997Genetic diversity and differentiation of Cyclobalanopsis glauca populations in East ChinaActa Botanica Sinica39149155Google Scholar
  9. Cheon, C.P., Chung, M.Y., Chung, M.G. 2000Allozyme and clonal diversity in Korean populations of Ardisia japonica and Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae)Israel Journal of Plant Science48239245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cruzan, M. 2001Population size and fragmentation thresholds for the maintenance of genetic diversity in the herbaceous endemic Scutellaria montana (Lamiaceae)Evolution5515691580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Doyle, J.J., Doyle, J.L. 1987A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissuePhytochemical Bulletin191115Google Scholar
  12. Ellstrand, N.C., Elam, D.R. 1993Population genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservationAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics24217242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. England, P.R., Usher, A.V., Whelan, R.J., Ayre, D.J. 2002Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure of fragmented populations of the rarefire-dependent shrub Grevillea macleayanaMolecular Ecology11967977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fan, X.X., Shen, L., Zhang, X., Chen, X.Y., Fu, C.X. 2004Assessing genetic diversity of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) populations from China by RAPD markersBiochemical Genetics42269278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frankham, R., Ballou, J.D., Briscoe, D.A. 2002Introduction to Conservation GeneticsCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall, P., Walker, S., Bawa, K. 1996Effect of forest fragmentation on genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical treePithecellobium elegansConservation Biology10757768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Keller, L.F., Waller, D.M. 2002Inbreeding effects in wild populationsTrends in Ecology and Evolution17230241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landergott, U., Holderegger, R., Kozlowski, G., Schneller, J. 2001Historical bottlenecks decrease genetic diversity in natural populations of Dryopteris cristataHeredity87344355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewontin, R.C. 1972The apportionment of human diversityEvolutionary Biology6381398Google Scholar
  20. Li, Y.-Y., Chen, X.-Y., Zhang, X., Wu, T.-Y., Lu, H.-P., Cai, Y.-W. 2005Genetic differences between wild and artificial populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae): Implications for species recoveryConservation Biology19224231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lienert, J., Fischer, M., Schneller, J., Diemer, M. 2002Isozyme variability of the wetland specialist Swertia perennis (Gentianaceae) in relation to habitat sizeisolation, and plant fitnessAmerican Journal of Botany89801811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lynch, M., Milligan, B.G. 1994Analysis of population genetic structure with RAPD markersMolecular Ecology39199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mantel, N. 1967The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approachCancer Research27209220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller, M.P. 1997Tools for population genetic analyses (TFPGA) v1.3: A windows program for the analysis of allozyme and molecular genetic dataDepartment of Biological Sciences Northern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffGoogle Scholar
  25. Morden, C.W., Loeffler, W. 1999Fragmentation and genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the endangered Hawaiian mint Haplostachys haplostachya (Lamiaceae)Molecular Ecology8617625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris, A.B., Baucom, R.S., Cruzan, M.B. 2002Stratified analysis of the soil seed bank in the cedar glade endemic Astragalus bibullatus: Evidence for historical changes in genetic structureAmerican Journal of Botany892936Google Scholar
  27. Nybom, H. 2004Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plantsMolecular Ecology1311431155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nybom, H., Bartish, I.V. 2000Effects of life history traits and sampling strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in plantsPerspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics3/293114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Raijmann, L.E.L., Leeuwen, N.C., Kersten, R., Oostermeijer, J.R.B., Den Nijs, H.C.M., Menken, S.B.J. 1994Alleleic variation and outcrossing rate in relation to population size in Gentiana pneumonanthe LConservation Biology810141026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ritland, K. 1990A series of FORTRAN computer programs for estimating plant mating systemsJournal of Heredity81235237Google Scholar
  31. Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J., Margules, C.R. 1991Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A reviewConservation Biology51832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Song, Y.C., Wang, X.R. 1995Vegetation and Flora of Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang ProvinceShanghai Scientific Documentary PressShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  33. Tansley, S.A., Brown, C.R. 2000RAPD variation in the rare and endangered Leucadendron elimense (Proteaceae): implications for their conservationBiological Conservation953948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tyler, T. 2002Large-scale geographic patterns of genetic variation in Melica nutansa widespread Eurasian woodland grassPlant Syst. Evol.2367387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rossum, F., Sousa, S.C., Triest, L. 2004Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in an agricultural landscape on the common Primula verisand comparison with its rare congenerP. vulgarisConservation Genetics5231245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vandewoestijne, S., Baguette, M. 2002The genetic structure of endangered populations in the Cranberry Fritillary, Boloria aquilonaris (LepidopteraNymphalidae): RAPDs vs allozymesHeredity89439445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yeh, F.C., Yang, R.C., Boyle, T. 1999Popgene Version 1.31: Microsoft Window-Based Freeware for Population Genetic AnalysisDepartment of Renewable Resources, University of AlbertaEdmonton, AB CanadaGoogle Scholar
  38. Young, A., Boyle, T., Brown, T. 1996The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plantsTrends in Ecology and Evolution11413418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Young, A., Merriam, H.G., Warwick, S.I. 1993The effects of forest fragmentation on genetic variation in Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) populationsHeredity71277289Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ai-Lian Zhao
    • 1
  • Xiao-Yong Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xin Zhang
    • 1
  • Dong Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiP. R. China
  2. 2.Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecological Processes and Restoration in Urban AreasShanghaiP. R. China

Personalised recommendations