Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 1303–1318 | Cite as

Status and Conservation of Trigonobalanus doichangensis (Fagaceae)#

  • Weibang Sun
  • Yuan Zhou
  • Chunyuan Han
  • Chunxia Zeng
  • Xiaodong Shi
  • Qibai Xiang
  • Allen Coombes


Trigonobalanus doichangensis is a national rare and endangered plant of China. It is restricted to 4 sites in southwest Yunnan, China and 1 site in Chiang-Rai, northern Thailand. Investigations revealed that 4 community types are currently extant in Yunnan: isolated individuals, sprouting woods, mono-dominant forest and co-dominant forest. The habitats have been severely damaged and the populations there are facing a high risk of extinction. The adult phase of T. doichangensis is reached when a tree attains a height of about 4 m. The flowering and fruiting time varies slightly among populations and/or across the micro-habitats. In comparison with other fagaceous plants in the community, T. doichangensis has an inverse flowering and fruiting period from October through to May. Although microspore genesis and the development of male gametes are normal, the pollen does not germinate until at least 8 h culture. The highest germination rate was 37.8%. In addition, only 9.8% of the nuts contain well-developed seeds. Genetic variation analyzed with random amplified polymorphic DNA indicated that its total genetic diversity was 0.1600 and genetic diversity within populations was 0.0749, the coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.5320. Therefore, T. doichangensis has high genetic differentiation, a low level of genetic diversity and a poor gene flow compared to the other fagaceous species. It seems that habitat degradation, over exploitation and reproductive barriers, are most likely to be the factors threatening the species. However, it may be a combination of geographical catastrophic events, habitat deterioration, declining genetic diversity and physiological stress. Therefore, a practical conservation strategy for T. doichangensis is urgently needed.


Conservation Endangered Genetic diversity Habitat degradation Reproductive barriers Trigonobalanus doichangensis (A.Camus) Forman 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anon1999List of National Key Protected Wild Plants (First Group)The Order of National Forestry Bureau and Agriculture Ministry of China4213Google Scholar
  2. Chen, X.Y., Wang, X.H., Song, Y.C. 1997Genetic diversity and differentiation of Cyclobalanopsis glauca populations in east ChinaActa Botanica Sinica39149155Google Scholar
  3. Crepet, W.L., Nixon, K.C. 1989Earliest megafossil evidence of Fagaceae: phylogenetic and biogeographic implicationsAmerican Journal of Botany76842855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Doyle, J.J., Doyle, J.L. 1988Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissueFocus121315Google Scholar
  5. EBYV (Editorial Board of Yunnan Vegetation).1987Vegetation of YunnanScience PressBeijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  6. Elena, T., Jose, M.I., Cesar, P. 2003Genetic structure of an endangered plantAntirrhinum microphyllum (Scrophulariaceae): Allozyme and RAPD analysisAmerican Journal of Botany908592Google Scholar
  7. Fiedler, P.L., Ahouse, J.J. 1992Hierarchies and cause: toward an understanding of rarity in vascular plant speciesFielder, P.L.Jain, S.K. eds. Conservation biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and managementChapman and HallNew York, USA2347Google Scholar
  8. Forman, L. 1964 Trigonobalanus: a new genus of FagaceaeKew Bulletin17381396Google Scholar
  9. Fu, L.G. 1992China Plant Red Data BookScience PressBeijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  10. He, S.A., Hao, R.M., Tang, S.J. 1996A study on the ecological factors of endangering mechanism of Liriodendron chinensis (Hemsl.) SargJournal of Plant Research and Environment518Google Scholar
  11. Hsu, Y.C., Wang, C.J, Wu, C.Y., Li, H.W. 1981 Trigonobalanus Forman-A new recorded genus of Fagaceae in ChinaActa Botanica Yunnanica3213215Google Scholar
  12. Hu, S.Y. 1982Embryology of AngiospermHigher Education PressBeijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang, H.Y., Ma, S.B., Li, L. 2001The genesis of microspore and the formation of male gametophyte in Dysosma versipellis Bulletin of Botanical Research21561566Google Scholar
  14. IUCN2001IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1Information PressOxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiang, Z.G., Ma, K.P., Han, X.G. 1997Conservation BiologySciences and Technology PressHangzhou, Zhejiang, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  16. Johri, B.M., Ambegaokar, K.B., Srivastava, P.S. 1992Comparative Embryology of AngiospermsSpringer-VerlagBerlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaul, R.B., Abbe, E.C. 1989Inflorescense architecture and evolution in the FagaceaeJournal of Arnold Arboretum65375401Google Scholar
  18. Kimura, M., Crow, J.F. 1964The number of alleles that can be maintained in a finite populationGenetics49725738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lande, R. 1988Genetics and demography in biological conservationScience24114551460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ledig, F.T., Hodgeskiss, P.D., Jocob-Cervantes, V. 2002Genetic diversity, mating systemand conservation of a Mexican subalpine relictPicea Mexicana Martinez. Conservation Genetics3113122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, T.Q., Cao, H.J. 1986Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte of Camellia chrysantha (Hu) TuyamaJournal of Beijing Forestry University83034Google Scholar
  22. Li, J. 1994A preliminary study on the floristic elements of the community of Formanodendron doichangensis Acta Botanica Yunnanica161724Google Scholar
  23. Li, J., Chen, K.Y., Li, B.S. 1997Preliminary study on genetic structure of alpine oaks in TibetJournal of Beijing Forestry University199398Google Scholar
  24. Li, Z.Z., Gong, J.J., Wang, Y., Huang, H.W. 2003Spatial structure of AFLP genetic diversity of remnant populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Taxodiaceae)Biodiversity Science11265275Google Scholar
  25. Liao, H.M., Gou, G.Q., Ye, N.G. 1998A study on seedling morphology and anatomy and systematic position of Trigonobalanus doichangensis FormJournal of Wuhan Botanical Research16223226Google Scholar
  26. Liao, S.Z., Zhou, W.L. 1989Seed germination experiment of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology107174Google Scholar
  27. Nixon, K.C., Crepet, W.L. 1989 Trigonobalanus (Fagaceae): Taxonomic status and phyllogenetic relationshipsAmerican Journal of Botany76828841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oldfield, S., Lusty, C., MacKinven, A. 1998The World List of Threatened TreesWorld Conservation PressCambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  29. Pan, Y.Z., Gong, X., Liang, H.X. 2003A study on the embryology of endangered plant Manglietia aromatica Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research2118Google Scholar
  30. Pang, X.A., Liu, X., Liu, H., Wu, C., Wang, J.Y., Yang, S.X., Wang, Q.F. 2003The geographic distribution and habitat of the Isoetes plants in ChinaBiodiversity Science11288294Google Scholar
  31. Rabinowitz, D. 1981Seven forms of raritySynge, H. eds. The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant ConservationWileyNew York, USA205217Google Scholar
  32. Simberloff, D. 1988The contribution of population and community biology to conservation sciencesAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics19473511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Soepadmo E. 1972. Fagaceae. In: Van Steenis C.G.G.J. (ed.), Flora Malesiana, Ser.1, Vol.7, Pt. 2:265–403.Google Scholar
  34. Sun, W.B., Zhou, Y., Zhao, J.C., Chen, G. 2004Current distribution,population attributes and biological characters of Trigonobalanus doichangensis in relation to its conservationActa Ecologia Sinica24352348Google Scholar
  35. Wang, P.L., Pu, F.T., Zheng, Z.H. 1998Palynological evidence for taxonomy of Trigonobalanus (Fagaceae)Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica36238241Google Scholar
  36. Wang, P.L., Zhang, J.T. 1988On the pollen morphology and systematic position of Trigonobalanus doichangensis Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica264446Google Scholar
  37. Whelan, E.D.P. 1974Discontinuities in the callose wall, inter-meiocyte connections, and cytomixis in angiosperm meiocytesCanadian Journal of Botany5312191224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu, S.M., Xiao, S.Q. 1989Comparative anatomical studies on the woods of Castanea Mill. and Trigonobalanus Forman in ChinaGuihaia22567571Google Scholar
  39. Xia, R.X., Ma, M.T., Mao, Q.S. 1989Observation of some features of staminate inflorescence and pollen of the major chestnut cultivars in Luotian countyJournal of Huazhong Agricultural University8189191Google Scholar
  40. Xiong, Y. 1987China SoilsScience PressBeijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  41. YWB (Yunnan Weather Bureau).1983Yunnan Agricutural Weather Data CollectionYunnan People’s PressYunnan, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhou, Y., Sun, W.B., Li, C.R. 2003Preliminary study on seed germination of Trigonobalanus doichangensis Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research217376Google Scholar
  43. Zhou, Y. 2003Effect of different seed provenances on seed germination and seedling growth in Trigonobalanus doichangensis Seeds13034Google Scholar
  44. Zhou, Z.K. 1992Origin, phylogeny and dispersal of Quercus from ChinaActa Botanica Yunnanica14227236Google Scholar
  45. Zhu, Q.H., Pan, H.X., Zhu, G.Q., Yin, T.M., Zou, H.Y., Huang, M.R. 2002Analysis of genetic structure of natural populations of Castanopsis fargesii by RAPDsActa Botanica Sinica4413211326Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weibang Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuan Zhou
    • 1
  • Chunyuan Han
    • 1
  • Chunxia Zeng
    • 3
  • Xiaodong Shi
    • 3
  • Qibai Xiang
    • 2
  • Allen Coombes
    • 4
  1. 1.Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of SciencesKunmingthe People’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Nanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingthe People’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Qujian Normal UniversityYunnanthe People’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Sir Harold Hillier GardensRomseyUK

Personalised recommendations