Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp 2477–2495 | Cite as

Subsistence hunting and conservation issues in the game reserve of Gile, Mozambique



Ethnozoological research was conducted to gather information on the hunting activities and their relevance for the subsistence of local people in 8 villages around the game reserve of Gile, Mozambique. Two series of data were gathered by questionnaires to: (a) 510 householders from eight villages located in the outskirts of the Reserve; (b) 10 hunters from the village of Gile, the main centre of the study area. Several hunting techniques were recorded: spears, nets, traps (including gin-traps) and wildfires, while the use of guns did not appear relevant. The importance of subsistence hunting for local people was underlined by the high percentage of respondents who declared that they usually conduct this activity and sell bushmeat. The proportion of hunters per village was related to the village size but not to its geographical location of villages and the household composition. A positive relationship existed between the proportion of hunters, crop production and fishing activities, indicating that hunting is part of an integrated system of subsistence activities. Most animals harvested were mammals (89.5%, of which 46.7% were ungulates) and most were captured within the Reserve (96%). A higher percentage of animals was sold (56%), representing a relevant income source for the villagers. Small animals were mainly captured by traps during solitary hunting, medium-sized animals in collective net hunting; larger prey were captured by gin-traps adopted by both solitary and collective hunting. In the diet of the local people wild animals represented a higher protein source than domestic animals.


Bushmeat trade Mozambique Subsistence hunting Wildlife conservation Zambezia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alvard, M.S., Robinson, J.G., Redford, K.H., Kaplans, H. 1997The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the TropicsConserv. Biol.11977982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes, R.F.W. 2002The bushmeat boom and bust in west and central AfricaOryx36236242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellamy, R. 1993Ethnobiology in Tropical ForestsRoyal Geographical SocietyLondon, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, E.L., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bakarr, M., Eves, E.H, Robinson, G.J., Wilkie, D.S. 2003Hunting the world's wildlife to extinctionOryx36328329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bothma, J.P. 2002Game Ranch ManagementVan Schaik PublishersPretoria, RSAGoogle Scholar
  6. Carpaneto, G.M. 1994Parc National d’Odzala: ethnozoologiefaune et ecotourisme. Rapport FinalRepublique du Congo - Ministère des Eaux et Forêts, AGRECO/CTFTBruxelles, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpaneto, G.M. 2001The Sustainable Exploitation of Wildlife in the National Reserve of Gile (“Reserva do Gilé”, Zambezia, Mozambique). Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpaneto, G.M., Fusari, A. 2000Subsistence hunting and bushmeat exploitation in central-western TanzaniaBiodivers. Conserv.915711585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chande, B., Zolho, R., Chidiamassamba, C., Longamane, F., Cumbane, R. 1997Reconhecimento bio-ecològico da Reserva do GiléMinistério para a Coordenação da Acção Ambiental-MICOAMaputo, MozambiqueGoogle Scholar
  10. Chidumayo, E.N. 1997Miombo Ecology and Management: an IntroductionIntermediate Technology PublicationsLondon, UKGoogle Scholar
  11. Colell, M., Maté, C., Fa, J.E. 1994Hunting among Moka Bubis in Bioko: dynamics of faunal exploitation at the village levelBiodivers. Conserv.3939950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DNFFB1995Mapa Florestal da Provincia da ZambéziaDireção National de Floresta e Fauna BraviaMaputo, MozambiqueGoogle Scholar
  13. Dutton, T.P., Dutton, E.A.R., Balsinhas, A. 1973Preliminary Ecological Reconnaissance of the “Reserva Especial do Gilé” and the Adjoining “Regime de Vigilancia”, District of ZambeziaReport for the Servicio de Veterinaria de MoçambiqueMaputoGoogle Scholar
  14. Fa, J.E., Juste, J., Del Val, J.P., Castroviejo, J. 1995Impact of market hunting on mammal species in Equatorial GuineaConserv. Biol.911071115Google Scholar
  15. Fa, J.E., García Yuste, J.E. 2001Commercial bushmeat hunting in the Monte Mitra forests, Equatorial Guinea: extent and impactAnim. Biodivers. Conserv.243152Google Scholar
  16. Fa, J.E., Peres, C. 2001Hunting in tropical forestsReynolds, J.D.Mace, G.M.Redford, K.H.Robinson, J.G. eds. Conservation of Exploited SpeciesCambridge University PressCambridge, UK203241Google Scholar
  17. Fitz Gibbon, C.D., Mogaka, H., Fanshawe, J.H. 1995Subsistence hunting in Arabuko-Sokoke ForestKenyaand its effects on mammal populationsConserv. Biol.911161126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fusari, A. 2002Utilization of the Indigenous Resources by Dwelling People in the National Reserve of Gile (Zambezia Province-Mozambique). Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  19. Galego, J.L. 2002Caterpillars, Traps and Bees: Livelihood Dependence on Wild Resources in the National Reserve of Gile. Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  20. Galego, J.L., Rasul, I. 2001Baseline Survey (Food Security Programme in the Districts of Ile and Gile, Zambezia Province-Mozambique). Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  21. INE1997II Receseamento Geral da População e HabitaçãoInstituto Nacional de EstatísticaMaputo, MozambiqueGoogle Scholar
  22. IUCN1998Mozambique Bush Meat Trade Study ReportIUCN Mozambique's Consultancy for the TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa (TESA). IUCNMaputo, MozambiqueGoogle Scholar
  23. Juste, J., Fa, J.E., Del Val, J., Castroviejo, J. 1995Market dynamics of bushmeat species in Equatorial GuineaJ. Appl. Ecol.32454467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kingdon, J. 1997The Kingdon Field Guide of African MammalsAcademic PressLondon, UKGoogle Scholar
  25. Kock, R.A. 1995Wildlife utilization: use it or lose it - a Kenyan perspectiveBiodivers. Conserv.4241256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lahm, S.A. 1993Utilization of forest resources and local variation of wildlife populations in Northeastern GabonHladik, C.M.Linares, O.F.Pagezy, H.Semple, A.Hadley, M. eds. Tropical Forests, People and FoodUNESCOParis, France213226Google Scholar
  27. Ling, S., Kümpel, N., Albrechtsen, L. 2003No new recipes for bushmeatOryx36330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marks, S.A. 1994Local hunters and wildlife surveys: a design to enhance participationAfr. J. Ecol.32233254Google Scholar
  29. Martines, A., Ntumi, C. 2002Plant Diversity, Vegetation Ecological Status, Spatial and Temporal Movements of Elephants and Economic Value of Natural Resources in the National Reserve of Gile, Zambezia Province-Mozambique. Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson, G.J., Bennett, E.L. 2003Will alleviating poverty solve the bushmeat crisis?Oryx36332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Skinner, J.D., Smithers, R.H.N. 1990The Mammals of the Southern African SubregionUniversity of Pretoria PressPretoria, RSAGoogle Scholar
  32. Trollope, W.S.W., Trollope, L.A. 2002Fire Management Program for the National Reserve of Gile in Zambezia Province, Mozambique. Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  33. van Aarde, R.J. 2002The Potential for Game Farming and the Rehabilitation of Wildlife Resources in the National Reserve of Gile (“Reserva do Gilé”, Zambezia, Mozambique). Final ReportMovimondoRome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  34. White, F. 1983The Vegetation of AfricaUNESCOParis, FranceGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilkie, D.S., Sidle, J.G., Boundzanga, G.C. 1992Mechanized logging, market hunting and a bank loan in CongoConserv. Biol.6111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilkie, D.S., Carpenter, J.F. 1999Bushmeat hunting in the Congo Basin: an assessment of impacts and options for mitigationBiodivers. Conserv.8927955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ziegler, S. 1996An initial study of hunting in the Upper Niger National ParkWildlife Nat.41328Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità degli Studi “Roma Tre”RomaItaly

Personalised recommendations