Colonization history of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) in North America: insights from random forest ABC using microsatellite data
First described from western Kansas, USA, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the worst pests of maize. The species is generally thought to be of Mexican origin and to have incidentally followed the expansion of maize cultivation into North America thousands of years ago. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated formally. In this study, the genetic variability of samples collected throughout North America was analysed at 13 microsatellite marker loci to explore precisely the population genetic structure and colonization history of D. v. virgifera. In particular, we used up-to-date approximate Bayesian computation methods based on random forest algorithms to test a Mexican versus a central-USA origin of the species, and to compare various possible timings of colonization. This analysis provided strong evidence that the origin of D. v. virgifera was southern (Mexico, or even further south). Surprisingly, we also found that the expansion of the species north of its origin was recent—probably not before 1100 years ago—thus indicating it was not directly associated with the early history of maize expansion out of Mexico, a far more ancient event.
KeywordsBiological invasion Invasion routes Approximate Bayesian computation Maize
We thank our colleagues Rosanna Giordano, Stephan Toepfer, Uwe Stoltz, Kyung Seok Kim, Sue Ratcliff, Greg Cronholm, Lee French, Lance Meinke, Brendon Reardon, Eli Levine, Bruce Eisley, Dennis Calvin, Joanne Whalen and Ken Wise for D. v. virgifera beetles and DNA samples. We also thank Emeline Deleury, Arnaud Estoup and Andrea Benazzo for scripts to compute summary statistics. We also thank Alexandra Auguste, Paulette Flacchi and Marie-José Odonne for technical and administrative assistance. This work was funded by grants from ANR projects Bioinv4I and Emile, and from the French Agropolis Fondation (Labex Agro-Montpellier, BIOFIS).
EL and TG designed the study. TS managed the collection of samples. MC, NM and AB genotyped the samples. EL and TG analysed the data. EL, MC, NM, TS and TG wrote the paper. All authors have revised and approved the final manuscript.
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