Biological Invasions

, Volume 17, Issue 10, pp 2803–2809 | Cite as

The progressive invasion of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa

  • A. Manrakhan
  • J. H. Venter
  • V. Hattingh
Invasion Note


The discovery of the exotic fruit fly pest Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), previously recognized as Bactrocera invadens, on the African continent in 2003 raised biosecurity concerns in South Africa where agriculture is of major socio-economic importance. This prompted the development of a nationally coordinated system to prevent introduction of this pest into the country. A steering committee was constituted to provide a platform for multi-stakeholder cooperation. A national action plan on B. dorsalis was developed. A surveillance network was initiated to provide for early detection of B. dorsalis. The first B. dorsalis eradication campaign was launched in 2010 following the detection of the pest in the northern border region of South Africa. Multiple point incursions were detected thereafter in the northern parts of the country and for the first 2 years all of these were considered successfully eradicated. However, the rate and geographic spread of incursions increased over time. In March 2013 the pest was declared present in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province. All areas affected by B. dorsalis were placed under quarantine and eradication actions are still ongoing in areas other than the Vhembe district. The national control strategy on B. dorsalis continues to be focussed on preventing further incursions, slowing the spread of the pest and monitoring the extent of its distribution within South Africa.


Bactrocera dorsalis Bactrocera invadens Invasion Eradication 



We are grateful to members of the B. invadens Steering Committee for their suggestions and comments on the manuscript. We also thank Tim Grout and Sean Moore, Citrus Research International, for their inputs. This review was funded by Citrus Research International and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Citrus Research InternationalNelspruitSouth Africa
  2. 2.Directorate Plant HealthPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Citrus Research International, Department of Conservation Ecology and EntomologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

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