Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1283–1290 | Cite as

Economic loss versus ecological gain: the outbreaks of invaded pinewood nematode in China

  • Mingjian Yu
  • Xuehong Xu
  • Ping Ding
Original Paper

Abstract

Pinewood nematode is native to North America and has been a deadly exotic pest infecting pine forests in Japan since the 1900s. It was first recorded in 1982 in subtropical China and has since aggressively spread to 113 counties and 14 provinces. As of 2007 the disease has infected over one million hectares of pine forests and 44 million pine trees in China 1982–2007. Besides inspection and quarantine, the main policy to control this disease is to eradicate the infected pines, which is costly and only partially effective. We investigated the community structure of four Pinus massoniana plantations with similar age and site conditions that were infested by pinewood nematode at different times (0, 4, 8, and 12 years), with the community structure in a zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest nearby. Our results demonstrate that the pinewood nematode infection accelerated the succession from the native pine plantations with higher economical values to the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forests which provide more ecological services. The conversion of pine plantations to natural forests is an urgent challenge facing China today. Thus, the infestation of pinewood nematode provides a unique opportunity for the conversion of the pine-dominated plantations and forests into broad-leaved forests and we therefore suggest that the government should invest its limited resources based on an appropriate trade-off between economic loss and ecological gain.

Keywords

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Invasive species Pine wilt disease Pinus massoniana Species diversity Stand structure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank K. J. Feeley for English editing. We are grateful to D. Simberloff and an anonymous reviewer for constructive comments on the manuscript. We also thank Chengmei Zhou, Gao Lu and Xihua Wang for helping with site selection. The research was supported by the National Key Basic Research Project (No. 2000046803) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References

  1. Arevalo JR, DeCoster JK, McAlister SD et al (2000) Changes in two Minnesota forests during 14 years following catastrophic windthrow. J Veg Sci 11:833–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320:1458–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen L, Chen Q, Liu W (1997) Forest diversity and its geographical distribution in China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen C, Xu Z, Mathers NJ (2004) Soil carbon pools in adjacent natural and plantation forests of subtropical Australia. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:282–291Google Scholar
  5. Chinese Central Government State Department (2003) National policy for accelerating forest development. Forestry of China 10:3–8Google Scholar
  6. Conner WH, Mixon WD II, Wood GW et al (2005) Maritime forest habitat dynamics on Bulls Island, Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, SC, following Hurricane Hugo. For Ecol Manag 212:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dropkin VH, Foudin AS, Kondo E et al (1981) Pinewood nematode: a threat to US forest? Plant Dis 65:1022–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fujihara M (1996) Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan. J Veg Sci 7:729–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fujihara M (1997) Structure of Pinus luchuensis forests affected by pine wilt disease in northern Taiwan. Nat Hist Res Special Issue 4:113–126Google Scholar
  10. Fujihara M, Hada Y, Toyohara G (2002) Changes in the stand structure of a pine forest after rapid growth of Quercus serrata Thunb. For Ecol Manag 170:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khan F, Gbadegesin R (1991) On the occurrence of nematode induced pine wilt disease in Nigeria. Pak J Nematol 9:57–58Google Scholar
  12. Mamiya Y (1988) History of pine wilt disease in Japan. J Nematol 20:219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Moon Y, Cheon H, Lee S (2007) Occurrence of pine wilt disease, caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, from Pinus koraiensis in Korea. J Nematol 39:87–88Google Scholar
  14. Mota MM, Braasch HB, Penas MA et al (1999) First report of Bursaphelencus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematologia 45:727–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shen Q, Zhang J, Zhu J et al (2005) Changes of species composition and diversity in the restoration processes of ecological public-welfare forests in Zhejiang, East China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 25:2131–2138Google Scholar
  16. Shi J, Luo Y, Wu H et al (2007) Traits of Masson pine affecting attack of pine wood nematode. J Integr Plant Biol 49:1763–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Song Y, Wang X (1995) Vegetation and flora of Tiantong National Forest Park. Shanghai Science and Technology Literature Press, Zhejiang province (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Taoda H (1988) Succession of Pinus thunbergii forest on coastal dunes, Hitotsuba Coast, Kyushu, Japan. Hikobia 10:119–128Google Scholar
  19. Wei X, Guo R, Zhao B (2001) Growth model and cutting age of masson pine natural forest in Zhejiang. J Zhejiang For Coll 18:333–336Google Scholar
  20. Xu R, Ye W (2003) Biological invasion: theory and practice. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  21. Xu F, Xi K, Xu G et al (1994) Study on the resistances of various year classes of Pinus massoniana to pine wood nematode (pwn), Bursaphelencus sylophilus. J Najing For Univ 18:27–33Google Scholar
  22. Yang B (2003) The history, dispersal and potential threat of pine wood nematode in China. In: The Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In: Mota M, Vieira P (eds) Proceedings of the International Workshop University of Evora, Portugal, 20–22 Aug 2001. Nematology monographs and perspectives, vol 1Google Scholar
  23. Yoshimura A, Kawasaki K, Takasu F et al (1999) Modeling the spread of pine wilt disease caused by nematodes with pine sawyers as vector. Ecology 80:1691–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang J, Ge Y, Chang J et al (2007) Carbon storage by ecological service forests in Zhejiang province, subtropical China. For Ecol Manag 245:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouP. R. China
  2. 2.Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingP. R. China

Personalised recommendations