Non-native carp of the genus Cyprinus in Lake Xingyun, China, as revealed by morphology and mitochondrial DNA analysis
Lake Xingyun is a major body of water in Yunnan Province, China. Previous investigations suggested that the lake contained native populations of carp of the genus Cyprinus, but it is believed that these native populations disappeared due to overfishing. However, one or more Cyprinus species are currently abundant in Lake Xingyun but their identity and origin are unclear. To determine if the existing Cyprinus population is indeed non-native, we compared the morphologies of fish (n = 62) recently captured (2007) to museum preserved Cyprinus collected in the lake in the 1960s. In addition, we conducted mitochondrial DNA analyses of Cyprinus (n = 65) recently taken from the lake and found 28 haplotypes. The genetics of the lake’s sample were compared to Cyprinus from a wide range of other locations within and outside China. Together with previously published Japanese and Eurasian haplotypes, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated 28 haplotypes and these were classified into five different units. One of the five units included 16 closely related haplotypes that formed a monophyletic group apart from the Eurasian clade. Given their monophyly that included 3 native carp haplotypes, haplotypes from this unit were thought to originate from the native strain of Lake Xingyun. Furthermore, combining this with result from morphological analysis, it was concluded that these haplotypes were likely hybrid carp. Conversely, haplotypes from the other 4 units nested into the Eurasian clade. Their phylogenetic affinities to Eurasian lineages indicated that these haplotypes were domesticated strains introduced from other parts of China, Vietnam and Europe. These conclusions were supported by historical records on introduction. This study revealed that almost all carp from current Lake Xingyun may be originated from hybrid strains and domesticated strains introduced from Eurasia.
KeywordsBiological invasion Morphological analysis D-loop Native strain Hybrid
We wish to express our sincere thanks to Mr. Mande Shi of Jiangchuan fishy farm and Xingyun Lake Protection Bureau for helping with documents investigates. We also thanks to Dr. Jian Yang for help with drawings, and Mr. Scott Groom for improving the language. This work was carried out under the support of National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2007CB411600) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30730017).
- Chu XL, Chen YR (1989) The fishes of Yunnan, China Part I. Cyprinidae [M]. Science Press, Beijing Google Scholar
- Geller JB (1996) Molecular approaches to the study of marine biological invasions. In: Ferraris JD, Palumbi SR (eds) Molecular Zoology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 119–132Google Scholar
- Huang KY (1997) Cyprinus pellegrini—a class II protected animal of the State [J]. Sci Fish Farm 27(7):40Google Scholar
- Kottelat M (2001) Fishes of Laos. WHT Publication (Pte) Ltd., 95, Cotta, Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. Saiki RK, DH Gelfand, and S Toffel. 1988. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science 239: 487–491Google Scholar
- Swofford DL (2000) PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Version 4.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
- Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) Clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22: 4673–4680.Google Scholar
- Yue PQ (2000) Fauna Sinica (Osteichthyes): Cypriniformes III [M]. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Yue PQ, Chen YY (1998) China red data book of endangered animals—pisces [M]. Science Press, Beijing, p 247Google Scholar
- Zhang JS, Ma ZB, Wang CS (1979) Research and application of F1 (Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus♂ × Cyprinus pellegrini♀). Freshwater Fish 2:14–18Google Scholar
- Zhou W (1990) Cyprininae. In: Chu XL, Chen YR et al (eds) The fishes of yunnan (Part I) [M]. Science Press, Beijing, p 377Google Scholar