Haplotypes of Fallopia introduced into the US
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In the US, clonal growth of Fallopia japonica, Fallopia sachalinensis and their hybrid Fallopia x bohemica (Polygonaceae) is prominent, yet sexual reproduction and hybridization contribute to the genetic complexity of swarms. The contribution to this diversity from multiple introductions is unknown. Using 800 bp of the non-coding chloroplast marker accD–rbcL, we compared 21 Japanese haplotypes with 46 US samples from 11 states, 2 Canadian samples, and 6 European samples from 4 countries, in order to investigate if there were repeated introductions from Asia. While most North American and all European haplotypes accessions in our collection matched a single widespread haplotype, we identified 8 other haplotypes. Three haplotypes of F. japonica (including the widespread haplotype) and one F. sachalinensis matched previously identified Japanese haplotypes, supporting the hypothesis of multiple introductions in the US. Five additional US haplotypes were detected once. Four of these differed from Japanese haplotypes by one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), possibly indicating a recent in situ change. The fifth haplotype represents a garden cultivar, which differed from all F. japonica haplotypes. It therefore appears that the US genetic diversity of these taxa has three sources: intra-specific reproduction, inter-specific reproduction, and multiple sources of introduction.
KeywordsJapanese knotweed Giant knotweed Reynoutria Polygonum cuspidatum Invasive species Haplotype network
We thank John Bailey, Pluma Beyer, Denise Deering, Jennifer Forman Orth, Cindy Kalkwarf, Christoph Methfessel, Christopher A. Militscher, Nick Page, Luca Paltrinieri, Julie Richburg, Dina Tsirelson, and Peter Zika for contributing tissue samples; Dina Tsirelson for contributions in the lab; three anonymous reviewers, and Jim Allen for assistance in the University of Massachusetts Boston greenhouse.
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