Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 7, pp 1503–1519 | Cite as

The rat and the octopus: initial human colonization and the prehistoric introduction of domestic animals to Remote Oceania

Invasive Rodents on Islands


Remote Oceania was colonized initially in three migratory phases: the western archipelagos of Micronesia plus eastern Melanesia out to west Polynesia in the period 3500–2800 cal BP (all dates hereafter are cal BP), central and eastern Micronesia 2200–2000 BP and east and south Polynesia 1100–700 BP. The early and late migration phases are best-known archaeologically. During these phases a number of plants and animals were introduced. Of the latter, the pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), fowl or chicken (Gallus gallus) and rats (Rattus spp., especially R. exulans) were most deliberately associated with human settlement. The pattern of introductions appears to be only partly in agreement with an implication of widespread early distribution derived from the orthodox colonisation model of ‘transported landscape’ coupled with sophisticated seafaring. Within the two main migrations the pattern of introductions is similar. Excepting in the movement to West Micronesia, all four taxa were transported into the islands nearest their proximate sources at, or soon after, the beginning of migration, but their introduction to more remote islands was partial and patchy. Evaluation of invasibility, invasiveness and transportability characteristics amongst the four taxa suggest that island size and complexity, propagule pressure and seafaring capability were important factors in differential distribution and survival. Seafaring capability was especially important because it determined the extent of accessibility to islands near and far and the degree of propagule or introduction pressure that was exerted. Framing the archaeological data within a model of invasion biology offers a richer and more systematic approach to the complexities of introduction than adopting a culture-historical perspective.


Prehistoric colonization Pacific islands Faunal introduction Invasion biology Seafaring Pig Dog Rat Chicken 



I thank Terry Hunt and Don Drake for inviting me to the conference in Honolulu, and Stuart Bedford, Simon Best, Geoffrey Clark, Lisa Matisoo-Smith, Nick Porch, Matiu Prebble and Alice Storey for scholarly assistance.


  1. Allen MS (2003) Human impact on Pacific nearshore marine ecosystems. In: Sand C (ed) Pacific archaeology: assessments and prospects. Proceedings of the International Conference for the 50th Anniversary of the first Lapita Excavation—Kone-Noumea 2002, vol 15. Le Cahiers de l’Archeologie en Nouvelle-Caledonie, pp 317–325Google Scholar
  2. Allison A (1996) Zoogeography of amphibians and reptiles of New Guinea and the Pacific region. In: Keast A, Miller SE (eds) The origin and evolution of Pacific Island Biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: patterns and processes. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 406–436Google Scholar
  3. Alpert P (2006) The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced. Biol Invasions 8:1523–1534Google Scholar
  4. Anderson E (1952) Plants, man and life. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson AJ (1991) The chronology of colonization in New Zealand. Antiquity 65:767–795Google Scholar
  6. Anderson AJ (1995) Current approaches in east Polynesian colonization research. J Polyn Soc 104:110–132Google Scholar
  7. Anderson AJ (2000a) Differential reliability of 14C AMS ages of Rattus exulans bone gelatin in south Pacific prehistory. J R Soc N Z 30:243–261Google Scholar
  8. Anderson AJ (2000b) The advent chronology of south Polynesia. In: Wallin P, Martinsson-Wallin M (eds) Essays in honour of Arne Skjolsvold 75 years. Occassional Papers of the Kon-Tiki Musem 5, Oslo, pp 73–82Google Scholar
  9. Anderson AJ (2000c) Slow boats from China: issues in the maritime prehistory of the Indo-Pacific region. In: O’Connor S, Veth P (eds) East of Wallace’s line: studies of past and present maritime cultures of the Indo-Pacific region. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 16. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 13–50Google Scholar
  10. Anderson AJ (2001) Towards the sharp end: The form and performance of prehistoric Polynesian voyaging canoes. In: Stevenson CM, Lee G, Morin FJ (eds) Pacific 2000: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific. Easter Island Foundation, Los Osos, pp 29–36Google Scholar
  11. Anderson AJ (2002) Faunal collapse, landscape change and settlement history in Remote Oceania. World Archaeol 33(3):375–390Google Scholar
  12. Anderson AJ (2003) Initial human dispersal in Remote Oceania: pattern and explanation. In: Sand C (ed) Pacific archaeology: assessments and prospects. Le Cahiers de l’Archaeologie en Nouvelle-Caledonie 15, Noumea, pp 71–84Google Scholar
  13. Anderson AJ (2004) Islands of ambivalence. In: Fitzpatrick SM (ed) Voyages of discovery: the archaeology of islands. Praeger, USA, pp 251–274Google Scholar
  14. Anderson AJ (2005) Subpolar settlement in south Polynesia. Antiquity 79:791–800Google Scholar
  15. Anderson AJ (2006) Retrievable time: prehistoric colonisation of south Polynesia from the outside in and the inside out. In: Ballantyne T, Moloughney B (eds) Disputed Histories: essays in honour of Erik Olssen. University of Otago Press, Dunedin, pp 25–41Google Scholar
  16. Anderson AJ (2008) Short and sometimes sharp: human impacts on marine resources in the archaeology and history of South Polynesia. In: Rick T, Erlandson J (eds) Human impacts on ancient marine ecosystems: a global perspective. University of California Press, Berkeley (in press)Google Scholar
  17. Anderson AJ, McGlone M (1991) Living on the edge: prehistoric land and people in New Zealand. In: Dodson J (ed) The naive lands: human-environmental interactions in Australia and Oceania. Longman Cheshire, Sydney, pp 199–241Google Scholar
  18. Anderson AJ, Sinoto Y (2002) New radiocarbon ages of colonization sites in east Polynesia. Asian Perspect 41:242–257Google Scholar
  19. Anderson AJ, Martinsson-Wallin H, Wallin P (eds) (2002) The prehistory of Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, Republic of Kiribati: excavations and analyses, vol 6. Occasional Papers of The Kon-Tiki Museum, OsloGoogle Scholar
  20. Anderson AJ, Chappell J, Gagan M, Grove R (2006) Prehistoric maritime migration in the Pacific islands: an hypothesis of ENSO forcing. Holocene 16:1–6Google Scholar
  21. Athens JS, Tuggle HD, Ward JV, Welch DJ (2002) Avifaunal extinctions, vegetation change, and Polynesian impacts in prehistoric Hawai’i. Archaeol Oceania 37:57–78Google Scholar
  22. Athens JS, Dega MF, Ward JV (2004) Austronesian colonization of the Mariana Islands: the paleoenvironmental evidence. Bull Indo-Pacific Prehist Assoc 24:21–30Google Scholar
  23. Atkinson IAE, Towns DR (2005) Kiore. In: King CM (ed) The handbook of New Zealand mammals. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp 159–174Google Scholar
  24. Baldwin JA (1990) Muruk, dok, pik, kakaruk: prehistoric implications og geographical distributions in the southwest Pacific. In: Yen DE, Mummery JMJ (eds) Pacific Production Systems: approaches to economic prehistory, Occasional Papers in Prehistory 18, Australian National University, pp 231–257Google Scholar
  25. Barlow ND, Kean JM (2004) Resource abundance and invasiveness: a simple model. Biol Invasions 6:261–268Google Scholar
  26. Bedford S (2003) The timing and nature of Lapita colonisation in Vanuatu: the haze begins to clear. In: Sand C (ed) Pacific archaeology: assessments and prospects. Le Cahiers de l’Archaeologie en Nouvelle-Caledonie 15, Noumea, pp 147–158Google Scholar
  27. Bedford S (2006) Pieces of the Vanuatu Puzzle: archaeology of the north, south and centre. Terra Australis 23, Australian National UniversityGoogle Scholar
  28. Bedford S, Clark G (2001) The rise and rise of the incised and applied relief tradition: a review and reassessment. In: Clark G, Anderson AJ, Sorovi-Vunidilo T (eds) The Archaeology of Lapita Dispersal in Oceania, Terra Australis 17, Australian National University, pp 61–74Google Scholar
  29. Bedford S, Spriggs MTJ (2000) Crossing the Pwanmwou: preliminary report on recent excavations adjacent to and southwest of Mangaasi, Efate, Vanuatu. Archaeol Oceania 35:120–126Google Scholar
  30. Bedford S, Spriggs M, Regenvanu R (2006) The Teouma Lapita site and the early human settlement of the Pacific islands. Antiquity 80:812–828Google Scholar
  31. Best SB (1984) Lakeba: The prehistory of a Fijian island. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Auckland, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  32. Blust R (2002) The history of faunal terms in Austronesian languages. Oceanic Linguist 41:89–139Google Scholar
  33. Burley DV (1998) Tongan archaeology and the Tongan past: 2850–150 BP. J World Prehist 12(4):337–392Google Scholar
  34. Burley DV, Dickinson WR (2001) Origin and significance of a founding settlement in Polynesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98:11829–11831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Burley DV, Nelson E, Shutler R Jr (1995) Rethinking Tongan Lapita chronology in Ha’apai. Archaeol Oceania 30:132–134Google Scholar
  36. Burley DV, Dickinson WR, Barton A, Jnr ShutlerR (2001) Lapita on the periphery: new data on old problems in the Kingdom of Tonga. Archaeol Oceania 36:89–104Google Scholar
  37. Burney LP, Burney DA (2003) Charcoal stratigraphies for Kaua’i and the timing of human arrival. Pac Sci 57:211–226Google Scholar
  38. Callaghan RT, Fitzpatrick SM (2007) On the relative isolation of a Micronesian archipelago during the historic period: the Palau case-study. Int J Natl Archaeol 36:353–364Google Scholar
  39. Chikamori M, Yoshida S (1988) An archaeological survey of Pukapuka atoll 1985: preliminary report. Occasional papers of the department of archaeology and ethnology. Keio University 6, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  40. Clark GR (2005) A 3000 year culture sequence from Palau, Western Micronesia. Asian Perspect 44:349–380Google Scholar
  41. Clark GR, Anderson AJ (2000) The age of the Yanuca Lapita site, Viti Levu, Fiji. N Z J Archaeol 22:15–30Google Scholar
  42. Clark JT, Michlovich MG (1996) An early settlement in the Polynesian homeland: excavations at ‘Aoa valley, Tutuila Island. J Field Archaeol 23(2):151–167Google Scholar
  43. Clark GR, Anderson AJ, Wright D (2006) Human colonization of the Palau Islands, Western Micronesia. J Island Coast Archaeol 1:215–232Google Scholar
  44. Colautti RI, Grigorovich IA, MacIsaac HJ (2006) Propagule pressure: anull model for biological invasions. Biol Invasions 8:1023–1037Google Scholar
  45. Conte E, Kirch PV (eds) (2004) Archaeological investigations in the Mangareva Islands. Contribution 62, archaeological research facility. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  46. Cowie RH (2001) Invertebrate invasions on Pacific Islands and the replacement of unique faunas: a synthesis of the land and freshwater snails. Biol Invasions 3:119–136Google Scholar
  47. Crosby AW (1986) Ecological imperialism: the biological expansion of Europe, 900–1900. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  48. Di Piazza A, Di Piazza P, Pearthree E (2007) Sailing virtual canoes across Oceania: revisiting island accessibility. J Archaeol Sci 34:1219–1225Google Scholar
  49. Finney BR (1979) Hokule’a: the way to Tahiti. Dodd, MeadGoogle Scholar
  50. Finney BR (1994) Voyage of rediscovery: a cultural odyssey through Polynesia. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  51. Flannery TF, White JP (1991) Animal translocation. Natl Geogr Res Explor 7:96–113Google Scholar
  52. Flenley J, King S (1984) Late quaternary pollen records from Easter Island. Nature 307:47–50Google Scholar
  53. Fosberg FR (ed) (1963) Man’s place in the island ecosystem: a symposium. Bishop Museum Press, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  54. Fosberg FR (1991) Polynesian plant environments. In: Cox PA, Banack SA (eds) Islands, plants, and Polynesians: an introduction to Polynesian ethnobotany. Dioscorides Press, Portland, pp 11–254Google Scholar
  55. Friedlaender JS, Friedlaender FR, Hodgson JA, Stoltz M, Koki G, Horvat G, Zhadanov S, Schurr TG, Merriwether DA (2007) Melanesian mtDNA complexity. PLoS ONE 2:e248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000248 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Galipaud JC (2006) The first millennium B·C. Remote Oceania: an alternative perspective on Lapita. In: Lilley I (ed) Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands. Blackwell, London, pp 228–239Google Scholar
  57. Giovas CM (2006) No pig atoll: island biogeography and the extirpation of a Polynesian domesticate. Asian Perspect 45:69–95Google Scholar
  58. Green RC (1976) Lapita sites in the Santa Cruz group. In: Green RC, Cresswell MM (eds) Southeast Solomon Islands cultural history: a preliminary survey, vol 11. Bulletin of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Wellington, pp 245–265Google Scholar
  59. Heger T, Trepl L (2003) Predicting biological invasions. Biol Invasions 5:313–321Google Scholar
  60. Heinsohn TE (2003) Animal translocation: long-term human influences on the vertebrate zoogeography of Australasia (natural dispersal versus ethnophoresy). Aust Zool 32:351–376Google Scholar
  61. Hide R (2003) Pig husbandry in New Guinea: a literature review and bibliography. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  62. Hinkle AE (2007) Population structure of Pacific cordyline fruticosa (laxmanniaceae) with implications for human settlement of Polynesia. Am J Bot 94(5):828–839Google Scholar
  63. Holdaway RN (1996) The arrival of rats in New Zealand. Nature 384:225–226Google Scholar
  64. Hope G, O’Dea D, Southern W (1999) Holocene vegetation histories in the Western Pacific—alternatives records of the human impact. In: Galipaud J-C, Lilley I (eds) The Pacific from 5000 to 2000 BP: colonisations and transformations. IRD Editions, Paris, pp 387–404Google Scholar
  65. Horrocks M, Bedford S (2005) Microfossil analysis of lapita deposits in Vanuatu reveals introduced Araceae (aroids). Archaeol Oceania 40:67–74Google Scholar
  66. Horrocks M, Weisler MI (2006) Analysis of plant microfossils in archaeological deposits from two remote archipelagos: the Marshall Islands, Micronesia and the Pitcairn group, southeast Polynesia. Pac Sci 60:261–280Google Scholar
  67. Hunt TL (1981) New evidence for early horticulture in Fiji. J Polyn Soc 90:259–269Google Scholar
  68. Hunt TL (2006) Rethinking the fall of Easter Island. Am Sci 94:412–419Google Scholar
  69. Hunt TL, Lipo CP (2006) Late colonization of Easter Island. Science 311:1603–1606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Intoh M (1986) Pigs in Micronesia: introduction or re-introduction by the Europeans? Man Cult Oceania 2:1–26Google Scholar
  71. Intoh M (1997) Human dispersals into Micronesia. Anthropol Sci 105:15–28Google Scholar
  72. Intoh M, Shigehara N (2004) Prehistoric pig and dog remains from Fais Island, Micronesia. Anthropol Sci 112:257–267Google Scholar
  73. Irwin GJ (1992) The prehistoric exploration and colonisation of the Pacific. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  74. Kay R (1984) Analysis of archaeological material from Naigani. Unpublished MA thesis, University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
  75. Keast A (1996) Pacific biogeography: patterns and processes. In: Keast A, Miller SE (eds) The Origin and evolution of Pacific Island Biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: patterns and processes. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 477–512Google Scholar
  76. Kennett D, Anderson AJ, Prebble M, Conte E, Southon J (2006) Prehistoric human impacts on Rapa, French Polynesia. Antiquity 80:340–354Google Scholar
  77. Kirch PV (1978) The Lapitoid period in west Polynesia: excavation and survey in Niuatoputapu, Tonga. J Field Archaeol 5:1–13Google Scholar
  78. Kirch PV (1982) The impact of the prehistoric Polynesians on the Hawaiian ecosystem. Pac Sci 36:1–14Google Scholar
  79. Kirch PV (1983) Man’s role in modifying tropical and subtropical Polynesian ecosystems. Archaeol Oceania 18:26–31Google Scholar
  80. Kirch PV (1986) Rethinking east Polynesian prehistory. J Polyn Soc 95:9–40Google Scholar
  81. Kirch PV (1987) Lapitoid Oceanic cultural origins: excavations in the Mussau Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, 1985. J Field Archaeol 14:163–180Google Scholar
  82. Kirch PV (2000) Pigs, humans and trophic competition on small Oceanic islands. In: Anderson AJ, Murray T (eds) Australian archaeologist: collected papers in honour of Jim Allen. Coombs Academic Press, Canberra, pp 427–439Google Scholar
  83. Kirch PV, Ellison J (1994) Palaeoenvironmental evidence for human colonization of remote Oceanic islands. Antiquity 68:310–321Google Scholar
  84. Kirch PV, Green RC (2001) Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia: an essay in historical anthropology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  85. Kirch PV, Hunt TL (eds) (1997) Historical ecology in the Pacific Islands. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  86. Kirch PV, Yen DM (1982) Tikopia: the prehistory and ecology of a Polynesian outlier. B·P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 238, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  87. Kirch PV, Flenley J, Steadman D (1991) A radiocarbon chronology for human-induced environmental change on Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands, Polynesia. Radiocarbon 33:217–228Google Scholar
  88. Larson G, Cucchi T, Fujita M, Matisoo-Smith E, Robins J, Anderson A, Rolett B, Spriggs M, Dolman G, Kim T-H, Thuy NTD, Randi E, Doherty M, Due RA, Bollt R, Djubiantono T, Griffin B, Intoh M, Keane E, Kirch P, Li K-T, Morwood M, Pedrina LM, Piper PJ, Rabett RJ, Shooter P, Van den Bergh G, West E, Wickler S, Yuan J, Cooper A, Dobney K (2007) Phlogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insight into neolothic expansion in island southeast Asia and Oceania. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:4834–4839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Leavesley M, Allen J (1998) Dates, disturbance and artefact distributions: another analysis of Buang Merabak, a Pleistocene site on New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Archaeol Oceania 33(2):63–82Google Scholar
  90. Lindenmayer DB, Fisher J (2006) Habitat fragmentation and landscape change. An ecological and conservation synthesis. CSIRO Publishing, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  91. Lum K, McIntyre JK, Greger DL, Huffmann KW, Vilar MG (2006) Recent Southeast Asian domestication and Lapita dispersal of sacred male pseudohermaphroditic ‘tuskers’ and hairless pigs of Vanuatu. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103:17190–17195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lynch J (1991) Pigs and dogs in island Melanesia. In: Pawley A (ed) Man and a half: essays in Pacific anthropology and ethnobiology in honour of Ralph Bulmer. The Polyn Soc, Auckland, pp 421–432Google Scholar
  93. Martin PS, Steadman DW (1999) Prehistoric extinctions on islands and continents. In: MacPhee RDE (ed) Extinctions in near time. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp 17–55Google Scholar
  94. Masse WB, Liston J, Carcucci J, Athens JS (2006) Evaluating the effects of climate change on environment, resource depletion and culture in the Palau Islands between AD 1200 and 1600. Quatern Int 151:106–132Google Scholar
  95. Matisoo-Smith E (2007) Animal translocations, genetic variation and the human settlement of the Pacific. In: Friedlander JS (ed) Population genetics, linguistics and culture history in the southwest Pacific. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  96. Matisoo-Smith E, Roberts RM, Irwin GJ, Allen JS, Penny D, Lambert DM (1998) Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:15145–15150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. McGlone MS, Wilmshurst JM (1999) Dating initial Maori environmental impact in New Zealand. Quatern Int 59:5–16Google Scholar
  98. McIlroy JC (2005) Feral pig. In: King CM (ed) The handbook of New Zealand mammals. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp 334–344Google Scholar
  99. McNeill JR (1994) Of rats and men: a synoptic environmental history of the island Pacific. J World Hist 5:299–349Google Scholar
  100. Molnar RE, Worthy TH, Willis PMA (2002) An extinct Pleistocene endemic Mekosuchine crocodylian from Fiji. J Vertebr Palaeontol 22:612–628Google Scholar
  101. Nunn PD, Kumar R, Matararaba S, Ishimura T, Seeto J, Rayawa S, Kuruyawa S, Nasila A, Oloni B, Ram AR, Suanivalu P, Sing P, Tegu E (2004) Early Lapita settlement site at Bourewa, southwest Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Archaeol Oceania 39:139–143Google Scholar
  102. Nunn PD, Ishimura T, Dickinson WR, Katayama K, Thomas F, Kumar R, Matararaba S, Davidson J, Worthy T (2007) The Lapita occupation at Naitabale, Moturiki Island, central Fiji. Asian Perspect 46:96–132Google Scholar
  103. Olson SL, James HF (1992) Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: part I: non-passerines. Ornithol Monogr 45:1–88Google Scholar
  104. Petchey FJ (2001) Radiocarbon determinations from the Mulifanua Lapita site, Upolu, Western Samoa. Radiocarbon 43:63–68Google Scholar
  105. Ponsonnet V (1995) Les animaux domestiques en Oceanie: etude preliminaire. DEA thesis presented to Universite de Paris I, FranceGoogle Scholar
  106. Rainbird P (1994) Prehistory in the northwest tropical Pacific: the Caroline, Mariana and Marshall islands. J World Prehist 8:293–349Google Scholar
  107. Rolett BV, Conte E (1995) Renewed investigation of the Ha’atuatua dune (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands): a key site in Polynesian prehistory. J Polyn Soc 104:195–228Google Scholar
  108. Sand C (2000) The specificities of the ‘Southern Lapita Province’: the New Caledonian case. Archaeol Oceania 35:20–33Google Scholar
  109. Sheppard P, Walter R (2006) A revised model of Solomon Islands culture history. J Polyn Soc 115:47–76Google Scholar
  110. Sherley G (ed) (2000) Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme, SuvaGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith A (1999) An assessment of the archaeological evidence for cultural change in early west Polynesian prehistory. B.A. hons thesis, La Trobe UniversityGoogle Scholar
  112. Specht J, Gosden C (1997) Dating Lapita pottery in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Asian Perspect 36(2):175–199Google Scholar
  113. Spriggs MTJ (2003) Post-lapita evolutions in island Melanesia. In: Sand C (ed) Pacific archaeology: assessment and prospects. Le Cahiers de l’Archaeologie en Nouvelle-Caledonie 15, Noumea, pp 205–212Google Scholar
  114. Steadman DW (1993) Biogeography of Tongan birds before and after human impact. Proc Natl Acad Sci 90:818–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Steadman DW (1999) The prehistory of vertebrates, especially birds, on Tinian, Aguiguan, and Rota, northern Mariana islands. Micronesica 31:319–345Google Scholar
  116. Steadman DW (2006) Extinction and biogeography of tropical Pacific birds. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  117. Steadman DW, Martin PS (2003) The late quaternary extinction and future resurrection of birds on Pacific islands. Earth-Sci Rev 61:133–147Google Scholar
  118. Steadman DW, Pregill GK, Burley DV (2002) Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:3673–3677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Storey AA, Ramirez JM, Quiroz D, Burley DV, Addison DJ, Walter R, Anderson AJ, Hunt TL, Athens JS, Huynen L, Matisoo-SDmith EA (2007) Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:10335–10339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Storey AA, Ladefoged T, Matisoo-Smith EA (2008) Counting your chickens: density and distribution of chicken remains in archaeological sites of Oceania. Int J Osteoarchaeol 18:240–261Google Scholar
  121. Tennyson A, Martinson P (2006) Extinct birds of New Zealand. Te Papa Press, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  122. Walter RK, Anderson AJ (2002) The archaeology of Niue Island, west Polynesia. Bishop museum bulletin in anthropology 10. Bishop Museum Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  123. Weisler MI (1997) Prehistoric long-distance interaction in Oceania: An interdisciplinary approach. Monograph 21. New Zealand Archaeological Association, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  124. Weisler MI (2001) On the margins of sustainability: prehistoric settlement of Utrok atoll. Northern Marshall Islands. BAR International Series 967, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  125. White JP (2004) Where the wild things are: prehistoric animal translocation in the circum New Guinea archipelago. In: Fitzpatrick SM (ed) Voyages of discovery: the archaeology of islands. Praeger, USA, pp 147–164Google Scholar
  126. White JP, Clark G, Bedford S (2000) Distribution, present and past of Rattus praetor in the Pacific and its implications. Pac Sci 54:107–117Google Scholar
  127. Wilmshurst JM, Higham TFG (2004) Rat gnawed seeds date the late arrival of Pacific rats and humans in New Zealand. Holocene 14:801–806Google Scholar
  128. Worthy TH, Holdaway R (2002) The lost world of the moa: prehistoric life of New Zealand. Canterbury University Press, ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  129. Worthy TH, Anderson AJ, Molnar RE (1999) Megafaunal expression in a land without mammals—the first fossil faunas from terrestrial deposits in Fiji. Senckenbergiana Biologica 79:337–364Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Research School of Pacific and Asian StudiesAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations