Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 1335–1345 | Cite as

Only the small survive: monitoring long-term changes in the zooplankton community of an Alpine lake after fish introduction

  • Robert Schabetsberger
  • Martin S. Luger
  • Gabriele Drozdowski
  • Albert Jagsch
Original Paper

Abstract

The zooplankton community of Alpine lake Seehornsee (1,779 m a.s.l.) was studied over a period of 13 years. In 1994, a typical high-altitude zooplankton community, consisting of two calanoid copepods (Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, Arctodiaptomus alpinus), one cladoceran (Daphnia rosea), and two rotifers (Keratella quadrata, Synchaeta pectinata) coexisted with infertile charr hybrids, which had been introduced in 1969 and again in 1974. When the aged fish were removed by intensive gill netting, they had fed predominantly on aquatic insects. After a fish-free period of 4 years, 2000 fertile juvenile Alpine charr (Salvelinus umbla) were stocked in 1998 and again in 1999. They preyed on benthic (chydorids, ostracods, cyclopoid copepods, chironomid larvae and pupae) and planktonic prey (diaptomid copepods, Daphnia). Between 2004 and 2006 charr successfully reproduced. Nine years after stocking of fertile charr, the two calanoids had virtually disappeared, and Daphnia rosea had notably declined in abundance. In concordance with the size efficiency hypothesis (Brooks and Dodson 1965), the newly appearing and smaller cladoceran Ceriodaphnia pulchella, together with the two resident, and two emerging species of rotifers (Polyarthra luminosa, Gastropus stylifer) dominated the zooplankton community.

Keywords

Alien species Alpine lake Fish stocking Top down Zooplankton 

Notes

Acknowledgments

During 1998/99 funding was provided by the Austrian National Bank. We wish to thank the tenants (Ulrike Bayrhammer, Herbert Hübel, Franz Kreibich, Miguel Spitzy) for the authorization to fish in Lake Seehornsee and the forestry department (Bayerische Saalforste) for permission to use the forest road. We are grateful to Hubert Gassner for help with stocking and gill netting.

References

  1. Anderson RS (1972) Zooplankton composition and change in an Alpine lake. Verh Int Ver Limnol 18:264–268Google Scholar
  2. Bahls P (1992) The status of fish populations and management of high mountain lakes in the Western United States. NW Sci 66:183–193Google Scholar
  3. Bohonak AJ, Jenkins DG (2003) Ecological and evolutionary significance of dispersal by freshwater invertebrates. Ecol Lett 6:783–796. doi: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00486.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brancelj A (1999) The extinction of Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Copepoda) following the introduction of charr into a small Alpine lake Dvojno Jezero (NW Slovenia). Aquat Ecol 33:355–361. doi: 10.1023/A:1009972108485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks JL, Dodson SI (1965) Predation, body size, and composition of plankton. Science 150:28–35. doi: 10.1126/science.150.3692.28 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donald DB, Anderson RS, Mayhood DW (1994) Coexistence of fish and large Hesperodiaptomus species (Crustacea: Calanoida) in subalpine and Alpine lakes. Can J Zool 72:259–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gliwicz ZM (1986) Predation and the evolution of vertical migration in zooplankton. Nature 320:746–748. doi: 10.1038/320746a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hairston NG (1976) Photoprotection by carotenoid pigments in the copepod Diaptomus nevadensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:971–974. doi: 10.1073/pnas.73.3.971 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jersabek CD, Schabetsberger R (1995) Resting egg production and oviducal cycling in two sympatric species of Alpine diaptomids (Copepoda: Calanoida) in relation to temperature and food availability. J Plankton Res 17(11):2049–2078. doi: 10.1093/plankt/17.11.2049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jersabek CD, Schabetsberger R (1996) Limnological aspects of an Alpine karst lake with extreme changes in water level. Limnologica 26:1–13Google Scholar
  11. Jersabek CD, Brancelj A, Stoch F, Schabetsberger R (2001) Distribution and ecology of copepods in mountainous regions of the Eastern Alps. Hydrobiologia 453(454):309–324. doi: 10.1023/A:1013113327674 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Knapp RA, Matthews KE, Sarnelle O (2001) Resistance and resilience of Alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecol Monogr 71:401–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liss WJ, Larson GL, Deimling EA, Ganio LM, Hoffman RL, Lomnicky GA (1998) Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of diaptomid copepods in high-elevation lakes in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Hydrobiologia 379:63–75. doi: 10.1023/A:1003453611464 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luger MS, Schabetsberger R, Jersabek CD, Goldschmid A (2000) Life cycles, size and reproduction of the two coexisting calanoid copepods Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Imhof, 1885) and Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (Lilljeborg, 1889) in a small high-altitude lake. Arch Hydrobiol 148:161–185Google Scholar
  15. O’Brien WJ, Barfield M, Bettez ND, Gettel GM, Hershey AE, McDonald ME et al (2004) Physical, chemical, and biotic effects on arctic zooplankton communities and diversity. Limnol Oceanogr 49:1250–1261Google Scholar
  16. Parker BR, Wilhelm FM, Schindler DW (1996) Recovery of Hesperodiaptomus arcticus populations from diapausing eggs following elimination by stocked salmonids. Can J Zool 74:1292–1297. doi: 10.1139/z96-144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pechlaner R (1966) Salmonideneinsätze in Hochgebirgsseen und -tümpel der Ostalpen. Verh Int Ver Limnol 16:1182–1191Google Scholar
  18. Pechlaner R (1984) Historical evidence for the introduction of Alpine charr into high-mountain lakes of the Alps by man. In: Johnson L, Burns BL (eds) Biology of the Alpine charr. Proceedings of the international symposium on Alpine charr Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 1981, University of Manitoba Press, Winnipeg, pp 549–557Google Scholar
  19. Reissig M, Trochine C, Queimalinos C, Balseiro E, Modenutti B (2006) Impact of fish introduction on planktonic food webs in lakes of the Patagonian plateau. Biol Conserv 132:437–447. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.04.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schabetsberger R, Gassner H, Luger M, Jersabek C, Brozek S, Goldschmid A (1996) Das Wachstum von Saiblingen in sechs Salzburger Gebrigsseen. Österr Fischerei 49:137–142Google Scholar
  21. Schabetsberger R, Jersabek C, Mooslechner B (1997) Die Fischereiwirtschaft in der Nationalparkregion zwischen 1966 und 1994. Wiss Mitt Nationalpark Hohe Tauern 3:165–181Google Scholar
  22. Schabetsberger R, Grill S, Hauser G, Wukits P (2006) Zooplankton successions in lakes with contrasting impacts of amphibian and fish predators. Int Rev Hydrobiol 91:197–221. doi: 10.1002/iroh.200610867 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schabetsberger R, Drozdowski G, Rott E, Lenzenweger R, Jersabek CD, Fiers F, Traunspurger W, Reiff N, Stoch F, Kotov AA, Martens K, Schatz H, Kaiser R (2009) Losing the bounty—investigating species richness in isolated freshwater ecosystems of Oceania. Pac Sci 63(2)Google Scholar
  24. Schindler DW, Parker BR (2002) Biological pollutants: alien fishes in mountain lakes. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 2:379–397. doi: 10.1023/A:1020187532485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Winder M, Monoghan MT, Spaak P (2001) Have human impacts changed zooplankton diversity over the past 100 years? Arct Antarct Alp Res 33:467–475. doi: 10.2307/1552557 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Schabetsberger
    • 1
  • Martin S. Luger
    • 2
  • Gabriele Drozdowski
    • 1
  • Albert Jagsch
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Organismal BiologyUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Freshwater EcologyFisheries Management and Lake ResearchMondseeAustria

Personalised recommendations