Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 171–181 | Cite as

Restoration of Themeda australis swards suppresses soil nitrate and enhances ecological resistance to invasion by exotic annuals

  • Suzanne M. Prober
  • Ian D. Lunt
Original Paper


Understanding processes that underlie ecological resistance to weed invasion is critical for sustainable restoration of invaded plant communities. Experimental studies have demonstrated that invasive nitrophilic annuals can be controlled by addition of carbon to reduce soil nitrate concentrations, sometimes leading to enhanced establishment of native plants. However, effects of carbon supplements on soil nitrate are temporary, and the longer-term value of carbon supplementation as a restoration tool is dependent on the resistance of the re-established ecosystem to repeat invasion. We investigated whether re-established swards of the tussock grass Themeda australis (R.Br.) Stapf (a natural understorey dominant in mesic grassy woodlands of SE Australia) could suppress soil nitrate concentrations, and through this or other means, could impart ongoing resistance to exotic invasion in restored woodlands. In a remnant invaded by exotic annuals, we applied three plot treatments (carbon supplements, annual spring burns and untreated control) and two seed treatments (± Themeda seed) in a replicated, factorial design. Within 3 years, successful establishment of Themeda swards on burnt and carbon-supplemented plots was associated with a reduction in soil nitrate to levels comparable with non-invaded, Themeda-dominated reference sites in the region (<3 mg/kg), and significantly reduced exotic cover compared with unseeded plots. By contrast, on plots not seeded with Themeda, soil nitrate increased after cessation of carbon addition and exotic cover returned to levels comparable with untreated control plots, despite a high cover of other native perennial grasses. Few persistent effects of carbon supplements or spring burning on soil nutrients were evident 9–19 months after cessation of these treatments. Results suggest that Themeda is a keystone species that regulates nitrate cycling, thereby imparting ecological resistance to invasion by nitrophilic annuals.


Carbon addition Grassland Invasibility Keystone species Spring burning 



We thank the Johnson family for allowing us to conduct this trial on their property, and Kevin Thiele and Lisa Smallbone for field assistance. This study was supported by the New South Wales government through its Environmental Trust.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIRO Sustainable EcosystemsWembleyAustralia
  2. 2.Institute for Land, Water and SocietyCharles Sturt UniversityAlburyAustralia

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