Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 797–807 | Cite as

Yield enhancement strategies of rare pharmaceutical metabolites from endophytes

  • Fangxue Xu
  • Shiyuan Wang
  • Yujuan Li
  • Mengmeng Zheng
  • Xiaozhi Xi
  • Hui Cao
  • Xiaowei Cui
  • Hong Guo
  • Chunchao Han


Endophytes are barely untapped as vital sources in the medicine. They are microorganisms which mostly exist in plants. As they are exploited, it is accepted that endophytes can produce active metabolites that possess same function as their hosts such as taxol, podophyllotoxin, hypericin, and azadirachtin. These metabolites have been promising potential usefulness in safety and human health concerns. We are supposed to adopt measures to raise production for the low yield of metabolites. This paper summarizes the latest advances in various bioprocess optimization strategies. These techniques can overcome the limitations associated with rare pharmaceutical metabolite-producing endophytic fungi. These strategies include strain improvement, genome shuffling, medium optimization, fermentation conditions optimization, addition of specific factor, addition of solid sorbent, and co-culturing. It will enable endophytes to produce high and sustainable production of rare pharmaceutical metabolites.


Yield improvement Develop strategies Pharmaceutical metabolites Endophytes 



This work was supported by Project of Shandong Province Key Research and Development Program (2017YYSP030). The authors would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human and animal studies

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fangxue Xu
    • 1
  • Shiyuan Wang
    • 2
  • Yujuan Li
    • 1
  • Mengmeng Zheng
    • 1
  • Xiaozhi Xi
    • 1
  • Hui Cao
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Cui
    • 1
  • Hong Guo
    • 1
  • Chunchao Han
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PharmacyShandong University of Traditional Chinese MedicineJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Traditional Chinese MedicineShandong University of Traditional Chinese MedicineJinanPeople’s Republic of China

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