Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 711–719 | Cite as

Tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 facilitate differentiation and proliferation of tendon-derived stem cells in vitro

  • Peilin Han
  • Qingbo Cui
  • Shulong Yang
  • Hao Wang
  • Peng Gao
  • Zhaozhu Li
Original Research Paper



To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the proliferation and differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSC).


TNF-α inhibits the proliferation and tenogenic/osteogenic differentiation of TDSC but, after simultaneous or sequential treatment with TGF-β1 and TNF-α, the expression of tenogenic/osteogenic-related marker and proliferation of TDSC was significantly increased. During these processes, Smad2/3 and Smad1/5/8 were highly phosphorylated, meaning that the TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways were highly activated. Further study revealed that the expression of Inhibitor-Smad appeared to be negatively correlated to the proliferation and differentiation of TDSC.


Combining the use of TNF-α and TGF-β1 could improve the proliferation and differentiation of TDSC in vitro, and the expression of I-Smad is negatively correlated with TDSC proliferation and differentiation.


Differentiation Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic Proliferation Tendon-derived stem cells Transforming growth factor-β1 Tumor necrosis factor-α 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81272049) and Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Fund (No. LBH-Z15128).

Supporting Information

Supplementary Table 1—List of genes and sequence of primers.

Supplementary Table 2—List of antibodies and condition of western blots.

Supplementary material

10529_2017_2296_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 30 kb)
10529_2017_2296_MOESM2_ESM.doc (31 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 31 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peilin Han
    • 1
  • Qingbo Cui
    • 1
  • Shulong Yang
    • 1
  • Hao Wang
    • 1
  • Peng Gao
    • 1
  • Zhaozhu Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric Surgery Departmentthe Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical UniversityHarbinChina

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