Tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 facilitate differentiation and proliferation of tendon-derived stem cells in vitro
To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the proliferation and differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSC).
TNF-α inhibits the proliferation and tenogenic/osteogenic differentiation of TDSC but, after simultaneous or sequential treatment with TGF-β1 and TNF-α, the expression of tenogenic/osteogenic-related marker and proliferation of TDSC was significantly increased. During these processes, Smad2/3 and Smad1/5/8 were highly phosphorylated, meaning that the TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways were highly activated. Further study revealed that the expression of Inhibitor-Smad appeared to be negatively correlated to the proliferation and differentiation of TDSC.
Combining the use of TNF-α and TGF-β1 could improve the proliferation and differentiation of TDSC in vitro, and the expression of I-Smad is negatively correlated with TDSC proliferation and differentiation.
KeywordsDifferentiation Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic Proliferation Tendon-derived stem cells Transforming growth factor-β1 Tumor necrosis factor-α
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81272049) and Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Fund (No. LBH-Z15128).
Supplementary Table 1—List of genes and sequence of primers.
Supplementary Table 2—List of antibodies and condition of western blots.
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