, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 265–275 | Cite as

Effects of agricultural practices and fine-scale landscape factors on spiders and a pest insect in Japanese rice paddy ecosystems

  • Yuki G. Baba
  • Yoshinobu Kusumoto
  • Koichi Tanaka


We examined the effects of environmentally friendly (EF) farming and landscape factors on the abundances of major spider guilds and a rice pest, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), in a Japanese rice paddy ecosystem. The abundances of all spider guilds increased by EF farming, whereas different spider guilds showed contrasting responses to the size of the forest within 200 m of the fields. The abundances of ground spiders and horizontal web weavers increased with increasing forest area, unlike small ground spiders, whose abundance decreased. The abundances of SBPH nymphs and adults decreased by EF farming but responded differently to landscape: nymphs decreased with increasing forest area, but adults did not. Further analysis indicated a potential negative relationship between web-weaving spiders and SBPH nymphs. Our findings suggest that the size of the forest adjacent to fields is an important determinant of spider guild composition and pest abundance.


Biological control Erigoninae Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) Lycosidae Pachygnatha Tetragnatha 



We thank Shu-ichi Sugiyama, Toshihiro Yoshida, Yoshiharu Yoshida, and Tamotsu Yoshida for allowing us to survey their rice paddy fields. This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan through a research project titled “Development of agricultural pest control system by the effective use of indigenous natural enemies” and by a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research (17K20074).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no financial or other types of conflicts of interest.


  1. Amano T, Kusumoto Y, Okamura H, Baba YG, Hamasaki K, Tanaka K, Yamamoto S (2011) A macro-scale perspective on within-farm management: how climate and topography alter the effect of farming practices. Ecol Lett 14:1263–1272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baba YG, Tanaka K (2016a) Environmentally friendly farming and multi-scale environmental factors influence generalist predator community in rice paddy ecosystems of Japan. In: Yagi K, Kuo CG (eds) The challenges of agro-environmental research in Monsson Asia, NIAES Series No.6. pp. 171–179Google Scholar
  3. Baba YG, Tanaka K (2016b) Factors affecting abundance and species composition of generalist predators (Tetragnatha spiders) in agricultural ditches adjacent to rice paddy fields. Biol Control 103:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bengtsson J, Ahnström J, Weibull AC (2005) The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta-analysis. J Appl Ecol 42:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Betz L, Tscharntke T (2017) Enhancing spider families and spider webs in Indian rice fields for conservation biological control, considering local and landscape management. J Insect Conserv 21(3):495–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bianchi FJJA, Booij CJH, Tscharntke T (2006) Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci 273:1715–1727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birkhofer K, Arvidsson F, Ehlers D, Mader VL, Bengtsson J, Smith HG (2016) Organic farming affects the biological control of hemipteran pests and yields in spring barley independent of landscape complexity. Landscape Ecol 31:567–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birkhofer K, Bylund H, Dalin P, Ferlian O, Gagic V, Hambäck PA, Klapwijk M, Mestre L, Roubinet E, Schroeder M, Stenberg JA, Porcel M, Björkman C, Jonsson M (2017) Methods to identify the prey of invertebrate predators in terrestrial field studies. Ecol Evol 7:1942–1953CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng JA (2009) Rice planthopper problems and relevant causes in China. In: Heong KL, Hardy B (eds) Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp. 157–178Google Scholar
  11. Denno RF, Mitter MS, Langellotto GA, Gratton C, Finke DL (2004) Interactions between a hunting spider and a web-builder: consequences of intraguild predation and cannibalism for prey suppression. Ecol Entomol 29:566–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hardin MR, Benrey B, Coll M, Lamp WO, Roderick GK, Barbosa P (1995) Arthropod pest resurgence: an overview of potential mechanisms. Crop Protec 14:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayasaka D, Korenaga T, Suzuki K, Saito F, Sánchez-Bayo F, Goka K (2012) Cumulative ecological impacts of two successive annual treatments of imidacloprid and fipronil on aquatic communities of paddy mesocosms. Ecotox Environ Safe 80:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katayama N, Baba YG, Kusumoto Y, Tanaka K (2015) A review of post-war changes in rice farming and biodiversity in Japan. Agric Syst 132:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kiritani K (2000) Integrated biodiversity management in paddy fields: shift of paradigm from IPM toward IBM. Integ Pest Manag Rev 5:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kiritani K, Kawahara S, Sasaba T, Nakasuji F (1972) Quantitative evaluation of predation by spiders on the green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, by a sight-count method. Res Popul Ecol 13:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kobayashi T, Takada M, Takagi S, Yoshioka A, Washitani I (2011) Spider predation on a mirid pest in Japanese rice fields. Basic Appl Ecol 12:532–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Losey JE, Denno RF (1998) Positive predator–predator interactions: enhanced predation rates and synergistic suppression of aphid populations. Ecology 79:2143–2152Google Scholar
  19. Mader V, Birkhofer K, Fiedler D, Thorn S, Wolters V, Diehl E (2016) Land use at different spatial scales alters the functional role of web-building spiders in arthropod food webs. Agric Ecosyst Environ 219:152–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marc P, Canard A (1997) Maintaining spider biodiversity in agroecosystems as a tool in pest control. Agric Ecosyst Environ 62:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matsumura M, Otuka A (2009) Recent occurrence of the small brown planthopper and the rice stripe virus disease in Japan. Plant Protect 63:293–296 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Miyashita T, Chishiki Y, Takagi SR (2012) Landscape heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales enhances spider species richness in an agricultural landscape. Popul Ecol 54:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nakasuji F, Yamanaka H, Kiritani K (1973) The disturbing effect of micryphantid spiders on the larval aggregation of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Kontyû 41:220–227Google Scholar
  24. Ogura Y, Sakai H, Koike J (2014) Occurrence of rice stripe disease in Gunma Prefecture. Ann Rep Kanto-Tosan Plant Protec Soc 61:13–17 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Okabe K, Sugiyama A (2016) Occurrence and control of rice stripe disease in Ibaraki Prefecture. Plant Protec 70:89–95 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Okuma C, Lee MH, Hokyo N (1978) Fauna of spiders in a paddy field in Suwon, Korea I. Esakia 11:81–88Google Scholar
  27. Pei H, Nakamura K (2012) Biodiversity and abundance of spider assemblages in restored terraced paddies. Acta Arachnol 61:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Picchi MS, Bocci G, Petacchi R, Entling MH (2016) Effects of local and landscape factors on spiders and olive fruit flies. Agric Ecosyst Environ 222:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  30. Riechert SE, Lockley T (1984) Spiders as biological control agents. Annu Rev Entomol 29:299–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Samu F, Szinetár C (2002) On the nature of agrobiont spiders. J Arachnol 30:389–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sanada-Morimura S, Sakumoto S, Ohtsu R, Otuka A, Huang SH, Van Thanh D, Matsumura M (2011) Current status of insecticide resistance in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, in Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Appl Entomol Zool 46:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schmidt MH, Tscharntke T (2005) The role of perennial habitats for Central European farmland spiders. Agric Ecosyst Environ 105:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schmidt MH, Thies C, Nentwig W, Tscharntke T (2008) Contrasting responses of arable spiders to the landscape matrix at different spatial scales. J Biogeogr 35:157–166Google Scholar
  35. Settle WH, Ariawan H, Astuti ET, Cahyana W, Hakim AL, Hindayana D, Lestari AS, Pajarningsih S (1996) Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and alternative prey. Ecology 77:1975–1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shiba T (2016) Present state of rice stripe disease -Introduction-. Plant Protec 70:77–78 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Shinkai A (1962) Studies on insect transmissions of rice virus diseases in Japan. Bull Nat Inst Agric Sci Ser C 14:1–112Google Scholar
  38. Sunderland K, Samu F (2000) Effects of agricultural diversification on the abundance, distribution and pest control potential of spiders: a review. Entomol Exp Appl 95:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Takada MB, Yoshioka A, Takagi S, Iwabuchi S, Washitani I (2012) Multiple spatial scale factors affecting mirid bug abundance and damage level in organic rice paddies. Biol Control 60:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takada MB, Kobayashi T, Yoshioka A, Takagi S, Washitani I (2013) Facilitation of ground-dwelling wolf spider predation on mirid bugs by horizontal webs built by Tetragnatha spiders in organic paddy fields. J Arachnol 41:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Takada MB, Takagi S, Iwabuchi S, Mineta T, Washitani I (2014) Comparison of generalist predators in winter-flooded and conventionally managed rice paddies and identification of their limiting factors. SpringerPlus 3:418CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Tanaka K (2016) Functional biodiversity indicators and their evaluation methods in Japanese farmlands. In: Yagi K, Kuo GC (eds) The challenges of agro-environmental research in Monsson Asia, NIAES Series No.6. pp. 157–168Google Scholar
  43. Tanaka K, Endo S, Kazano H (2000) Toxicity of insecticides to predators of rice planthoppers: spiders, the mirid bug and the dryinid wasp. Appl Entomol Zool 35:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tscharntke T, Bommarco R, Clough Y, Crist TO, Kleijn D, Rand TA, Vidal S (2007) Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale. Biol Control 43:294–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tsukahara T (2016) Occurrence and control of rice stripe disease in Tochigi Prefecture. Plant Protec 70:96–99 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  46. Tsutsui MH, Tanaka K, Baba YG, Miyashita T (2016) Spatio-temporal dynamics of generalist predators (Tetragnatha spider) in environmentally friendly paddy fields. Appl Entomol Zool 51:631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tuck SL, Winqvist C, Mota F, Ahnström J, Turnbull LA, Bengtsson J (2014) Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis. J Appl Ecol 51:746–755CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Usio N, Miyashita T (2015) Social-ecological restoration in paddy-dominated landscapes. Springer, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  49. Willer H, Yussefi M, Sorensen N (2010) The world of organic agriculture: statistics and emerging trends 2008. Earthscan. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, NAROTsukuba-shiJapan

Personalised recommendations