Diet restriction (DR) studies undergo the implementation of reduced single or multiple component/s of the fly food without causing malnutrition. The question of how and why DR modifies the fate of lifespan in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster has prompted us to emphasize by attending the control food composition first. Certain concentrations of DR food do not always confer an extended lifespan, rather it enables the flies to achieve their normal lifespan, which was probably reduced by the control food per se (having toxic effect caused due to the excess levels of dietary components). However, the current paradigm of DR studies has elicited its benefits and losses via trade-offs in the organismal traits and have highlighted the need for a common diet, but have not claimed the tested diets as balanced. So, the DR effect on lifespan and other fitness traits cannot be justified only based on varying control food across labs and hence, the approach of DR studies has to be revisited and a balanced diet has to be formulated. The current article discusses the need for a balanced diet, the traits to be considered before designing a diet, and certain problems in the existing synthetic medium. Therefore, based on the control food composition, the validity of lifespan extension conferred by these nutrient restricted diets need to be accounted for.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
We confirm that the current manuscript comprises only the data which are present in the main manuscript file and do not contain any further associated data.
Aguila JR, Hoshizaki DK, Gibbs AG (2013) Contribution of larval nutrition to adult reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol 216:399–406
Barnes AI, Wigby S, Boone JM et al (2008) Feeding, fecundity and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster. Proc R Soc B 275:1675–1683
Bass TM, Grandison RC, Wong R et al (2007) Optimization of dietary restriction protocols in Drosophila. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:1071–1081
Bazzell B, Ginzberg S, Healy L et al (2013) Dietary composition regulates Drosophila mobility and cardiac physiology. J Exp Biol 216:859–868
Chapman T, Partridge L (1996) Female fitness in Drosophila melanogaster: an interaction between the effect of nutrition and of encounter rate with males. Proc Biol Sci 263:755–759
Chippindale AK, Leroi AM, Kim SB et al (1993) Phenotypic plasticity and selection in Drosophila life-history evolution. I. Nutrition and the cost of reproduction. J Evol Biol 6:171–193
Chippindale AK, Alipaz JA, Rose MR (2004) Experimental evolution of accelerated development in Drosophila. 2. Adult fitness and the fast development Syndrome. In: Passananti HB, Matos M (eds) Methuselah flies: a case study in the evolution of aging. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 413–435
de Moed GH, De Jong G, Scharloo W (1997) Environmental effects on body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster and its cellular basis. Genet Res 70:35–43
Deas JB, Blondel L, Extavour CG (2019) Ancestral and offspring nutrition interact to affect life-history traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci 286:20182778
Dick KB, Ross CR, Yampolsky LY (2011) Genetic variation of dietary restriction and the effects of nutrient-free water and amino acid supplements on lifespan and fecundity of Drosophila. Genet Res Camb 93:265–273
Emborski C, Mikheyev AS (2019) Ancestral diet transgenerationally influences offspring in a parent-of-origin and sex-specific manner. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 374:20180181
Grandison RC, Piper MD, Partridge L (2009) Amino-acid imbalance explains extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in Drosophila. Nature 462:1061–1064
Güler P, Ayhan N, Kosukcu C et al (2015) The effects of larval diet restriction on developmental time, preadult survival, and wing length in Drosophila melanogaster. Turk J Zool 39:395–403
Harper JM, Leathers CW, Austad SN (2006) Does caloric restriction extend life in wild mice? Aging Cell 5:441–449
Keebaugh ES, Yamada R, Ja WW (2019) The nutritional environment influences the impact of microbes on Drosophila melanogaster life span. mBio 10:e00885-19
Klepsatel P, Procházka E, Gáliková M (2018) Crowding of Drosophila larvae affects lifespan and other life-history traits via reduced availability of dietary yeast. Exp Gerontol 110:298–308
Kolss M, Vijendravarma RK, Schwaller G et al (2009) Life-history consequences of adaptation to larval nutritional stress in Drosophila. Evolution 63:2389–2401
Kopec S (1928) On the influence of intermittent starvation on the longevity of the imaginal stage of Drosophila melanogaster. Br J Exp Biol 5:204–211
Kristensen TN, Overgaard J, Loeschcke V et al (2011) Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Biol Lett 7:269–272
Krittika S, Yadav P (2019) An overview of two decades of diet restriction studies using Drosophila. Biogerontol 20:723–740
Krittika S, Yadav P (2020) Dietary protein restriction deciphers new relationships between lifespan, fecundity and activity levels in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Sci Rep 10:10019
Krittika S, Lenka A, Yadav P (2019) Evidence of dietary protein restriction regulating pupation height, development time and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Biol Open 8:bio042952
Le Bourg E, Médioni J (1991) Food restriction and longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Age Nutr 2:90–94
Lebreton S, Witzgall P, Olsson M et al (2014) Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males. Front Physiol 5:504
Lee WC, Micchelli CA (2013) Development and characterization of a chemically defined food for Drosophila. PLoS ONE 8:e67308
Lee KP, Simpson SJ, Clissold FJ et al (2008) Lifespan and reproduction in Drosophila: new insights from nutritional geometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2498–2503
Lints FA, Lints CV (1969) Influence of preimaginal environment on fecundity and ageing in Drosophila melanogaster hybrids. I. Preimaginal population density. Exp Gerontol 4:231–244
Mair W, Piper MDW, Partridge L (2005) Calories do not explain extension of life span by dietary restriction in Drosophila. PLoS Biol 3:e223
Matzkin LM, Johnson S, Paight C et al (2011) Dietary protein and sugar differentially affect development and metabolic pools in ecologically diverse Drosophila. J Nutr 141:1127–1133
Metaxakis A, Partridge L (2013) Dietary restriction extends lifespan in wild-derived populations of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE 8:e74681
Min KJ, Yamamoto R, Buch S et al (2008) Drosophila lifespan control by dietary restriction independent of insulin-like signaling. Aging Cell 7:199–206
Piper MD, Partridge L (2007) Dietary restriction in Drosophila: delayed aging or experimental artefact? PLoS Genet 3:e57
Piper MD, Blanc E, Leitão-Gonçalves R et al (2014) A holidic medium for Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Methods 11:100–105
Rapport EW, Stanley-Samuelson D, Dadd RH (1984) Ten generations of Drosophila melanogaster reared axenically on a fatty acid-free holidic diet. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 1:243–250
Reis T (2016) Effects of synthetic diets enriched in specific nutrients on Drosophila development, body fat, and lifespan. PLoS ONE 11:e0146758
Rodrigues MA, Martins NE, Balance LF et al (2015) Drosophila melanogaster larvae make nutritional choices that minimize developmental time. J Insect Physiol 81:69–80
Sang JH (1956) The quantitative nutritional requirements of 391 Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol 33:45–72
Schmidt PS, Paaby AB (2008) Reproductive diapause and life-history clines in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 62:1204–1215
Sgrò CM, Van Heerwaarden B, Kellermann V et al (2013) Complexity of the genetic basis of ageing in nature revealed by a clinal study of lifespan and methuselah, a gene for ageing, in Drosophila from eastern Australia. Mol Ecol 22:3539–3551
Shell BC, Schmitt RE, Lee KM et al (2018) Measurement of solid food intake in Drosophila via consumption-excretion of a dye tracer. Sci Rep 8:11536
Skorupa DA, Dervisefendic A, Zwiener J et al (2008) Dietary composition specifies consumption, obesity, and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Aging Cell 7:478–490
Stefana MI, Driscoll PC, Obata F et al (2017) Developmental diet regulates Drosophila lifespan via lipid autotoxins. Nat comm 8:1384
Strilbytska O, Velianyk V, Burdyliuk N et al (2020) Parental dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio affects offspring lifespan and metabolism in Drosophila. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 241:110622
Troen AM, French EE, Roberts JF et al (2007) Lifespan modification by glucose and methionine in Drosophila melanogaster fed a chemically defined diet. Age 29:29–39
Yadav P, Sharma VK (2014) Circadian clocks of faster developing fruit fly populations also age faster. Biogerontol 15:33–45
We thank two anonymous reviewers for their careful reading and inputs to improve the final version of the manuscript.
S.K. acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology- Government of India, for the INSPIRE fellowship (IF170750). P.Y. acknowledges the Science and Engineering Research Board (File No.-CRG/2019/003184), Department of Science and Technology- Government of India, India for the financial support and SASTRA Deemed to be University, Thanjavur (TN), India for the infrastructure.
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Krittika, S., Yadav, P. The seesaw of diet restriction and lifespan: lessons from Drosophila studies. Biogerontology (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-021-09912-3
- Drosophila melanogaster
- Diet restriction
- Development time
- Balanced diet