Integration of sliding mode based steering control and PSO based drive force control for a 4WS4WD vehicle
- 153 Downloads
The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach to enable a four-wheel steer four-wheel drive (4WS4WD) vehicle to follow a predefined path under force control. The novelty is in the combination of a sliding mode controller that determines the steering angles using a kinematic model and a real-time particle swarm optimization based controller that determines the drive torques using a dynamic model. The dynamic model takes into account all the slip forces acting on the vehicle. The combined controllers are then used to drive the 4WS4WD vehicle to follow a path. In order to enable the implementation of the controllers, the path to be followed is generated using 7-order Bézier curves that can provide smooth kinematic and dynamic reference profiles. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and its robustness.
KeywordsGround vehicle Path generation Sliding mode control PSO Force control
- Arvind, V. (2013). Optimizing the turning radius of a vehicle using symmetric four wheel steering system. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 4, 2177–2184.Google Scholar
- Baffet, G., Charara, A., & Stephant, J. (2006). Sideslip angle, lateral tire force and road friction estimation in simulations and experiments. In IEEE international conference on control applications computer aided control system design (pp. 903–908). doi: 10.1109/CACSD-CCA-ISIC.2006.4776765.
- Carlisle, A., & Doizier, G. (2001). An off-the-shelf PSO. In Proceedings of the workshop on particle swarm optimization, Indianapolis (pp. 1–6). http://libra.msra.cn/Publication/2038172/an-off-the-shelf-pso.
- Chuan, L., & Quanyuan, F. (2007). The standard particle swarm optimization algorithm convergence analysis and parameter selection. In Third international conference on natural computation (Vol. 3, pp. 823–826). doi: 10.1109/ICNC.2007.746.
- Dai, P., & Katupitiya, J. (2014). Path planning and force control of a 4WD4WS vehicle. In: Australasian conference on robotics and automation (ACRA).Google Scholar
- Liu, W., Liu, L., & Cartes, D. (2008). Efforts on real-time implementation of PSO based PMSM parameter identification. In: Power and energy society general meeting—Conversion and delivery of electrical energy in the 21st century (pp. 1–7). doi: 10.1109/PES.2008.4596324.
- Liu, C., Meng, Y., Zhang, J., & Kong, C. (2010). Dynamics simulation for 4ws vehicle steering performance. In 2010 3rd international conference on advanced computer theory and engineering (Vol. 5, pp. 108–110).Google Scholar
- Lohmiller, W., & Slotine, J. J. (1997). Applications of contraction analysis. In Proceedings of the 36th IEEE conference on decision and control (Vol. 2, pp. 1044–1049). doi: 10.1109/CDC.1997.657584.
- Ramaswamy, S., & Balakrishnan, S. (2008). Formation control of car-like mobile robots: A Lyapunov function based approach. In: American control conference (pp. 657–662). doi: 10.1109/ACC.2008.4586567.
- Sleight, R., & Agrawal, S. K. (2004). Dynamic model of a four-wheel-drive HMMWV. In 28th biennial mechanisms and robotics conference (Vol. 2, pp. 1183–1191). doi: 10.1115/DETC2004-57444.
- Sleight, R., & Agrawal, S. K. (2007). Runge–Kutta methods and inverse Hermite interpolation. In International symposium on symbolic and numeric algorithms for scientific computing (pp. 118–123). SYNASC. doi: 10.1109/SYNASC.2007.28.
- Solea, R., Filipescu, A., Filipescu, S., & Dumitrascu, B. (2010). Sliding-mode controller for four-wheel-steering vehicle: Trajectory-tracking problem. In 2010 8th world congress on intelligent control and automation (WCICA) (pp. 1185–1190).Google Scholar
- Udengaard, M., & Iagnemma, K. (2007). Kinematic analysis and control of an omnidirectional mobile robot in rough terrain. In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS (pp. 795–800). doi: 10.1109/IROS.2007.4398996.
- Wu, J., Wang, Q., Wei, X., & Tang, H. (2010). Studies on improving vehicle handling and lane keeping performance of closed-loop driver–vehicle system with integrated chassis control. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 80(12), 2297–2308. doi: 10.1016/j.matcom.2010.04.028.MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zhou, S., Zhang, S., Zhao, G., Tang, C. (2010). Lateral stability control of car-trailer combination based on 4WS. In: International conference on measuring technology and mechatronics automation (ICMTMA) (Vol. 2, pp. 576–579). doi: 10.1109/ICMTMA.2010.123.