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Table 4 Moderator analyses for heterosexual women

From: Measurement of Sexual Interests with Pupillary Responses: A Meta-Analysis

  Fixed-effect Random-effects Q I2 (%) k N
d 95% CI d 95% CI
Pupil measurement − .06 [− 0.15, 0.03] − .07 [− 0.31, 0.16] 73.33* 83.64 13 403
Manual − .14 [− 0.31, 0.04] − .13 [− 0.32, 0.05] 1.03 3.05 2 32
EyeLink .02 [− 0.14, 0.17] .02 [− 0.43, 0.48] 47.14* 87.27 7 305
SMI .06 [− 0.12, 0.24] − .18 [− 0.88, 0.53] 18.14* 88.98 3 46
Tobii
Qbetween      7.02*    
Sexual interest measure − .13 [− 0.22, − 0.03] − .13 [− 0.36, 0.10] 55.91* 80.33 12 350
Not recordeda − .12 [− 0.27, 0.04] − .12 [− 0.27, 0.04] 1.23 0 3 77
Self-report − .13 [− 0.25, 0.01] − .14 [− 0.48, 0.20] 54.66* 85.67 9 273
Qbetween      0.02    
Correlation estimation .02 [− 0.08, 0.11] .06 [− 0.14, 0.26] 39.89* 74.93 11 258
Estimated − .19 [− 0.33, − 0.05] − .22 [− 0.34, − 0.10] 2.03 1.32 3 52
Actual .18 [0.06, 0.31] .19 [− 0.06, 0.44] 22.38* 68.72 8 206
Qbetween      15.48*    
Stimulib − .05 [− 0.15, 0.04] − .04 [− 0.27, 0.20] 56.67* 82.35 11 375
High explicitness − .10 [− 0.27, 0.07] − .26 [− 0.86, 0.34] 20.94* 90.45 3 158
Low explicitness .35 [0.16, 0.55] .42 [0.03, 0.81] 9.09* 66.99 4 140
Mixed − .22 [− 0.35, − 0.08] − .23 [− 0.38, − 0.07] 4.17 27.99 4 77
Qbetween      22.47*    
  1. No eligible studies with non-nude stimuli. d: effect size in Cohen’s d; CI: confidence interval; Q: χ2 test statistic of heterogeneity; I2: percentage of variability between studies that can be attributed to heterogeneity rather than sampling error. k: number of studies included in the analysis. N: total number of participants on which the analysis is based
  2. *Statistically significant
  3. aIncludes studies where sexual interest was not reported and/or not recorded. Participants were assumed heterosexual
  4. bHigh explicitness = completely nude, low explicitness = partially nude, and mixed = a mixture of high and low or not specified