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Table 2 Meta-analysis results of pupil dilation as a measure of sexual interest

From: Measurement of Sexual Interests with Pupillary Responses: A Meta-Analysis

Group Fixed-effect Random-effects Q I2 (%) k N
d 95% CI d 95% CI
Heterosexual men − .26 [− 0.35, − 0.18] − .55 [− 0.80, − 0.29] 105.90* 86.8 15 550
Gay men .26 [0.13, 0.38] .28 [ 0.11, 0.44] 6.68 40.14 5 65
Bisexual men .91 [ 0.65, 1.16] .47 [ − 0.43, 1.37] 31.11* 90.36 4 124
Heterosexual women − .06 [− 0.15, 0.03] − .07 [− 0.31, 0.16] 73.33* 83.64 13 403
Lesbian women − 1.01 [− 1.30, − 0.72] − .58 [− 3.74, 2.58] 205.44* 99.03 3 132
Bisexual women
  1. Heterosexual men analysis included studies 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 24, 29, 39, 40, 41; gay men included studies 7, 9, 15, 17, 41; bisexual men included studies 4, 17, 24, 41; heterosexual women included studies 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 14, 19, 23, 27, 29, 39, 40; lesbian women included studies 4, 7, 27; there were insufficient bisexual women studies for analysis
  2. d: effect size in Cohen’s d; CI: confidence interval; Q: χ2 test statistic of heterogeneity; I2: percentage of variability between studies that can be attributed to heterogeneity rather than sampling error. k: number of studies included in the analysis. N: total number of participants on which the analysis is based
  3. *Statistically significant