Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of descriptive information of eligible studies included in meta-analysis

From: Measurement of Sexual Interests with Pupillary Responses: A Meta-Analysis

Sample: Heterosexual men
Study No. Study Country N Age Setting Sexual interest measure Pupil response measure Stimuli Sexual explicitness Duration per trial (ms) Number of trials per category
1 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 22 21.8 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 5000 5
2 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 21 19.5 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 5000 5
4 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 20 25.5 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2000 8
5 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 18 21.6 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 3000 10
7 Watts et al. (2018) UK 6 25 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
9 Hess et al. (1965) USA 5 29 University/College/Community Self-report Manual frame-by-frame measurement of pupil diameter from video footage Images—Photographs and paintings Mixed nudity 10,000 5
10 Finke et al. (2018) Germany 17 24.1 University/College Self-report SMI iView-X HiSpeed 500 eye-tracker (500 Hz sample rate) Images—Photographs Complete nudity 2500 15
11 Finke et al. (2017) Germany 14 25.3 University/College Self-report SMI iView-X HiSpeed 500 eye-tracker (500 Hz sample rate) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2500 48
14 Scott et al. (1967) USA 10 University/College Sexual interest not recorded Manual frame-by-frame measurement of pupil diameter from video footage (2 f/s) Images Mixed nudity 10,000 8
15 Scott et al. (1967) USA 5 26.5 Prison Self-report Manual frame-by-frame measurement of pupil diameter from video footage (2 f/s) Images Mixed nudity 10,000 8
17 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 57 21.6 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 18
24 Rieger et al. (2013) UK 94 28 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 1
29 Attard-Johnson et al. (2017) UK 20 22.4 University/College Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2669 (average duration) 18
39 De Winter et al. (2021) Netherlands 129 23.2 University/College Sexual interest not recorded EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 2
40 De Winter et al. (2021) Netherlands 102 23.3 University/College Sexual interest not recorded EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Line drawings Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 2
41 Rieger et al. (2015) USA 30 24.5 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
Sample: Gay men
Study No. Study Country N Age Setting Sexual interest measure Pupil response measure Stimuli Sexual explicitness Duration per trial (ms) Number of trials per category
4 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 19 27.1 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2000 8
7 Watts et al. (2018) UK 6 25 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
9 Hess et al. (1965) USA 5 29 University/College/Community Self-report Manual frame-by-frame measurement of pupil diameter from video footage Images—Photographs and paintings Mixed nudity 10,000 5
15 Scott et al. (1967) USA 5 26.5 Prison Self-report Manual frame-by-frame measurement of pupil diameter from video footage (2 f/s) Images Mixed nudity 10,000 8
17 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 20 24.5 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 18
24 Rieger et al. (2013) UK 107 23.28 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 1
41 Rieger et al. (2015) USA 29 23.66 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
Sample: Bisexual men
Study No. Study Country N Age Setting Sexual interest measure Pupil response measure Stimuli Sexual explicitness Duration per trial (ms) Number of trials per category
4 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 13 26.9 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2000 8
17 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 19 21.1 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 18
24 Rieger et al. (2013) UK 76 26.14 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 1
41 Rieger et al. (2015) USA 16 24.67 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
Sample: Heterosexual women
Study No. Study Country N Age Setting Sexual interest measure Pupil response measure Stimuli Sexual explicitness Duration per trial (ms) Number of trials per category
1 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 22 21.8 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 5000 5
2 Attard-Johnson et al. (2016) UK 20 19.5 University/College Self-report EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 5000 5
4 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 28 23.1 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2000 8
5 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 20 21.6 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 3000 10
7 Watts et al. (2018) UK 9 26.2 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
10 Finke et al. (2018) Germany 18 24.1 University/College Self-report SMI iView-X HiSpeed 500 eye-tracker (500 Hz sample rate) Images—Photographs Complete nudity 2500 15
11 Finke et al. (2017) Germany 14 25.3 University/College Self-report SMI iView-X HiSpeed 500 eye-tracker (500 Hz sample rate) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2500 48
14 Scott et al. (1967) USA 10 University/College Sexual interest not recorded Manual frame-by-frame measurement of pupil diameter from video footage (2 f/s) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 10,000 8
19 Hamel (1974) USA 22 20 University/College Sexual interest not recorded Pupillometer system model V-1165-1R Images Mixed nudity 5,000 8
23 Laeng & Falkenberg (2007) Norway 14 22.5 University/College Other SMI iView-X HiSpeed 500 eye-tracker (500 Hz sample rate) Images—Photographs No nudity (face only) 10,000 10 male; 5 female
27 Rieger et al. (2016) UK 131 21.6 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 & 180,000 12 & 3
29 Attard-Johnson et al. (2017) UK 25 22.4 University/College Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2669 (average duration) 18
39 De Winter et al. (2021) Netherlands 53 23.2 University/College Sexual interest not recorded EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 2
40 De Winter et al. (2021) Netherlands 45 23.3 University/College Sexual interest not recorded EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Line drawings Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 2
19 Hamel (1974) USA 22 20 University/College Sexual interest not recorded Pupillometer system model V-1165-1R Images Mixed nudity 5,000 8
23 Laeng and Falkenberg (2007) Norway 14 22.5 University/College Other SMI iView-X HiSpeed 500 eye-tracker (500 Hz sample rate) Images—Photographs No nudity (face only) 10,000 10 male; 5 female
27 Rieger et al. (2016) UK 131 21.6 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 & 180,000 12 & 3
29 Attard-Johnson et al. (2017) UK 25 22.4 University/College Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2669 (average duration) 18
39 De Winter et al. (2021) Netherlands 53 23.2 University/College Sexual interest not recorded EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Photographs Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 2
40 De Winter et al. (2021) Netherlands 45 23.3 University/College Sexual interest not recorded EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Images—Line drawings Partial nudity (obscured sexual regions) 10,000 2
Sample: Lesbian women
Study No. Study Country N Age Setting Sexual interest measure Pupil response measure Stimuli Sexual explicitness Duration per trial (ms) Number of trials per category
4 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 17 26.1 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2000 8
7 Watts et al. (2018) UK 9 26.2 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 18,000 3
27 Rieger et al. (2016) UK 106 24.97 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 & 180,000 12 & 3
Sample: Bisexual women
Study No. Study Country N Age Setting Sexual interest measure Pupil response measure Stimuli Sexual explicitness Duration per trial (ms) Number of TRIALS per category
4 Snowden et al. (2019) UK 21 24.3 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) Tobii X2-60 Hz mobile eye-tracker (60 Hz rate recording every 16.67 ms) Images—Photographs Mixed nudity 2000 8
27 Rieger et al. (2016) UK 108 22.9 University/College/Community Self-report (Kinsey Scale) EyeLink SR Research Remote infrared eye-tracker (500/1000 Hz sample rate recording every 2 ms) Video footage Complete nudity 30,000 & 180,000 12 & 3